Manufacturing Industries – Class 10 Geography Notes

CBSE Class 10 Geography Notes of the Chapter ‘Manufacturing Industries’: The chapter notes are the best ways of preparing for any test or exams. Notes help a lot in short period revision before exams. So enjoy the free chapter notes given here. 😊

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I. Importance of Manufacturing Industries and their Location

Why is manufacturing sector considered as backbone of economic development?

Manufacturing and manufacturing industries

  • Manufacturing is the process of converting raw materials to produce more valuable finished products in large quantities.
  • Industries, which follow the process of converting raw material into final goods are known as manufacturing industries.
  • It falls under the secondary sector of an economy.

The manufacturing sector and economic development

  • The manufacturing sector is considered as the backbone of economic development because:
  • It helps in modernising agriculture by producing agricultural tools, machines, pesticides, insecticides, and other inputs.
  • It decreases dependence on agriculture by providing employment opportunities in industries and thus reduces poverty.
  • It has uplifted tribal and backward areas by providing employment opportunities.
  • Export of manufactured goods earns foreign exchange for the country.
  • A large number of industries and their diversification in producing a wide range of high-value goods increases the prosperity of a country.

Agriculture and industry

  • Agriculture and industry go hand in hand.
  • Agriculture provides the raw material to manufacturing industries, and industries produce agricultural tools and machines which help to modernise agriculture.
  • Industries help to increase agricultural productivity by providing pesticides, insecticides, fertilisers, irrigation pumps, and other inputs to farmers.

Contribution to the national economy

  • The total contribution of the industrial sector in GDP is 27 percent.
  • Out of this, Manufacturing industries contribute nearly 17 percent to the total GDP. Other industries contribute the rest 10 percent.
  • This sector has been growing at around 9% to 10% per annum since 2003.
  • With efforts to increase productivity and appropriate government policies, the manufacturing sector can achieve its target of 12% growth per annum.
  • The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set up to sustain and increase industrial productivity.

How is location of industries influenced by various factors?

The location of industries is influenced by several physical and human factors such as

  • availability of raw materials
  • availability of labour
  • availability of capital
  • availability of power
  • distance from market
  • availability of transport

Availability of raw materials

  • Availability of raw material is a physical factor influencing the location of an industry.
  • Industries are primarily located in or near areas where raw material can be procured easily and at low cost.
  • For example, the sugar industry’s raw material sugarcane is bulky, so these industries are located near the raw material source to lower transportation cost and loss of quality.

Availability of labour

  • Skilled and unskilled labour is a human factor required by every industry.
  • Areas where the raw materials and labour are easily available influence the location of industries.


  • Capital, or money, is required to purchase raw materials and pay wages, transportation, and other costs.
  • This money is invested by the entrepreneur and is an essential human factor affecting the location of an industry.


  • Power is a physical factor influencing the location of industries.
  • Industries like iron and steel or aluminium require a lot of power, so they are located near power sources.


  • Availability of markets is an important human factor in the location of industries.
  • Heavy machine tools industries are generally located near high-demand areas.
  • Non-weight losing industries like cotton textile industries are located within urban centres that are the main markets and are well connected to distant markets.


  • Industries are located in places where it is relatively easy to transport raw materials to the industry and finished products to the markets.
  • An efficient transport system is an important human factor influencing the location of industries.

Other factors

  • Government policies influence the location of an industry. The availability of skilled labour, which is required in industries such as information technology, also affects the location of an industry.
  • The key to the decision in a location of industries is the least cost — least cost of production, least cost of raw materials, and least cost of distribution of output.

Industrialisation and urbanisation

  • Industrial activity leads to the rise of urban centres.
  • Employment opportunities attract people from rural areas to industrial centres leading to urbanisation.
  • These urban centres then provide a ready market for the manufactured goods.
  • Tertiary services that support the manufacturing industry, such as banking, insurance, transport, become readily available in the cities.
  • Industrialisation leads to urbanisation, and urbanisation supports industrial development. Therefore, the two go hand in hand.

Agglomeration economies

Several industries that come together to avail the advantages offered by urban centres are called agglomeration economies.

II. Classification of Industries

How are industries classified based on different criteria?

Classification of Industries

The industries are classified on the basis of the following criteria:

  1. Source of raw materials used
  2. Main role
  3. Capital investment
  4. Ownership
  5. Bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods

Classification based on the source of raw materials used

  • Agro-based industries, where the raw material used is an agricultural product such as cotton, jute, tea, coffee, rubber, and sugar.
  • Mineral-based industries, where the raw material used is a mineral such as aluminium, cement, iron and steel.

Classification based on role

  • Basic or key industries, which provide their products or raw materials to other industries for manufacturing a variety of other products such as aluminium smelting or iron and steel.
  • Consumer industries that produce goods that are used directly by consumers such as wheat flour, sugar, sewing machines, toothpaste.

Classification based on capital investment

  • Small scale industries, which have an investment of not more than Rs 1 crore in setting up the manufacturing unit.
  • Large scale industries, where the capital investment in setting up the manufacturing unit is over Rs 1 crore.

Classification based on ownership

  • Public sector industries, which are owned and operated by government agencies, are set up to serve public interest, and are not profit oriented, such as SAIL, BHEL.
  • Private sector industries, which are owned by individuals or firms and have the main aim of earning profits, such as Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur industries, Reliance industries, TISCO.
  • Joint sector industries, which are co-owned by public and private sector entities, such as Oil India Ltd (OIL).
  • Cooperative sector industries, which work on the principle of pooling resources and profit-sharing, are typically owned and operated by workers or producers or suppliers of raw materials or both, such as the sugar industry of Maharashtra and the coir industry of Kerala.

Classification based on bulk and weight of raw materials and finished goods

  • Heavy industries, which use bulky materials as raw materials and the finished products are also heavy, such as iron and steel, ship building, oil industry.
  • Light industries, which use raw materials that are light and the finished products are also light, such as electrical industries.

III. Agro-based Industries

Which agro-based industries are found in India?

Several agro-based industries are found in India, such as cotton, silk, jute and woollen textiles, rubber, tea, coffee, sugar, and edible oil. The largest agro-based industries amongst these are:

  • Textile industry: cotton textile and jute textile are the most important textile industries in India
  • Sugar industry

Textile Industry

  • The textile industry is economically important for India.
  • It contributes a significant share of industrial production.
  • It generates employment in the textile and allied industries of dyeing, designing, packaging, engineering works, and mill stores.
  • It is the only self-reliant industry in India.
  • It is the only industry that is completely self-reliant in its value chain, that is, from raw material to the highest value-added product are all produced domestically.
  • It brings in foreign exchange.

Cotton textile industry – establishment

  • Cotton textiles have long been used and exported from India. 
  • During the 18th century, the Indian weaving and spinning industry suffered a setback due to competition from British mill-made cloth.
  • The first successful Indian textile mill was set up in Mumbai in 1854.
  • From a localised industry of Maharashtra and Gujarat in the early years, the cotton industry has grown to a presence all over India.

Spinning and weaving – Quality Yarn Exported

India produces high-quality and globally competitive yarn through its spinning mills, most of which is exported.

  • Spinning is concentrated in Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu.
  • Weaving is decentralised to accommodate the traditional craft and designs of weaving in cotton, silk, zari, embroidery, and so on.
  • The weaving process cannot make use of the high-quality yarn produced in the country and consequently produces low-quality fabric.
  • The garment manufacturers, unable to procure high-quality fabric from India’s weaving units, have to import fabric for manufacturing apparel.

Challenges faced by the cotton textile industry

The cotton textile industry faces a problem with respect to its weaving, knitting, and processing units. These problems are due to:

  • Erratic power supply in weaving, knitting, and processing units
  • Use of old and outdated machinery
  • Low productivity of labour
  • Competition from manufacturers of cheaper synthetic fibers

Jute textile industry – establishment

  • The first jute mill was set up in 1859 at Rishra near Kolkata.
  • Today, India is the second-largest exporter of jute in the world after Bangladesh. Canada, the USA, Russia, UK, Australia, and United Arab Republic are the main markets.
  • The Hugli basin in West Bengal is the biggest producer of raw jute and jute products.

Reasons for the concentration of jute mills in West Bengal

  • Jute-producing areas are in the vicinity.
  • Low-cost water transport is available.
  • An efficient rail and road network is available for the transport of raw materials to the mills.
  • Water required for processing jute is readily available.
  • Cheap labour from adjoining states of Bihar, Odisha, and Uttar Pradesh is available.
  • Kolkata offers easy banking, loan, insurance, and port facilities.

Challenges faced by the jute industry

  • Synthetic substitutes in the international market pose a serious challenge to the jute industry.
  • The cost of producing jute is high.
  • Countries like Bangladesh, Brazil, Thailand, the Philippines, and Egypt are strong competitors in the international market.

Sugar industry

India is the second-largest producer of sugar in the world and the largest producer of gur (jaggery) and khandsari.

  • Sugar mills are located close to sugarcane-producing areas since sugarcane loses its sucrose content during transport from farms to mills.
  • Chief producer states are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh.
  • This industry is seasonal in nature and is part of the cooperative sector.
  • Sugar mills are now shifting to the western and southern states of India.

Reasons for shifting of sugar industry towards south India

  • More successful sugar cooperatives are present in southern and western states.
  • The sucrose content is higher in the sugarcane produced in these regions.
  • The relatively cooler climate in these regions ensures longer crushing season for sugarcane.

Challenges faced by sugar industry

  • The industry is seasonal in nature, which means the raw materials are not available all around the year.
  • Inefficient and old methods of production are practised.
  • Delays in transport result in loss of sucrose content.
  • The use of bagasse is not maximised.

IV. Metallic Mineral-based Industries

What are the different metallic mineral-based industries found in India?

Metallurgical Industries in India

Industries that make use of metallic minerals as raw materials are called metallic mineral-based industries. The most important metallic mineral-based industries in India are:

  1. Iron and steel industry
  2. Aluminium smelting industry

Iron and steel industry

  • The iron and steel industry is termed as a heavy industry because all raw materials used and the finished products are heavy and so incur heavy transportation costs.
  • This industry is regarded as the backbone of industrial development for the following reasons:
  • All other industries depend on it for their machinery.
  • The products of this industry, iron and steel, are used for various purposes by other industries.
  • The higher the production and consumption of steel, the more developed the country. Therefore, production and consumption of steel serves as an index of a country’s development.
  • It has units in both private and public sectors.
  • The public sector undertakings mostly market their steel through the Steel Authority of India (SAIL).
  • In 2016, India ranked third in the production of crude steel.
  • India is the largest producer of sponge iron.

Types of iron and steel plants

  • Based on their size and capital investment, iron and steel plants in India fall under two categories.
  • Mini steel plants are smaller in size and have a low investment in the form of electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. Mini steel plants comprise of re rollers that make use of steel ingots. They can only produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications.
  • Integrated steel plants are large steel plants. These plants incorporate within a single complex process everything from procuring raw material, its processing, producing iron and steel, rolling and shaping.

Location of iron and steel plants

  • The chief iron and steel plants of India are Bokaro (Jharkhand), Jamshedpur (Jharkhand), Burnpur (West Bengal), Durgapur (West Bengal), Rourkela (Odisha), Bhilai (Chhattisgarh), Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), Vijaynagar (Karnataka), Bhadravati (Karnataka) and Salem (Tamil Nadu).
  • Most of the iron and steel plants are concentrated in the Chhotanagpur region due to advantages such as:
  • Easy availability of low-cost iron ore and raw materials such as coking coal in nearby areas.
  • Availability of cheap labour from the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal.
  • Growth potential of the industry in the home market.

Challenges faced by iron and steel industry

Though India is a leading producer of iron and steel in the world it is not explored to its full potential in this industry due to several problems such as:

  1. Erratic power supply to iron and steel plants
  2. Lack of adequate productive labour
  3. Inadequate infrastructure
  4. High costs and limited supply of coking coal

Aluminium smelting industry

  • After iron and steel, aluminium smelting is the second most important metallic industry in India.
  • The main raw material for the aluminium smelting industry is bauxite- a bulky and dark reddish coloured rock.
  • The properties of aluminium are: resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, light in weight, malleable and become strong when mixed with other metals. These characteristics make it a popular substitute for zinc, copper and lead in various industries.
  • Aluminium is primarily used in the manufacture of aircrafts, utensils and wires.

Location of aluminium smelting plants

Two prime factors considered for the location of aluminium smelting plants are:

  1. Assured supply of raw materials at the lowest cost.
  2. Uninterrupted supply of electricity.
  3. Primary aluminium smelting plants of India are located in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

V. Non-metallic Mineral-based industries

What are the different non-metallic mineral-based industries found in India?

Non-metallic mineral-based industries in India

  • Industries that use non-metallic minerals such as limestone, gypsum, potash as raw materials are called non-metallic mineral-based industries.
  • The most important non-metallic mineral-based industries found in India are:
  • Chemical industry
  • Fertiliser industry
  • Cement industry
  • Automobile industry
  • Information technology and electronics industry

Chemical industry

  • It is a rapidly expanding and diversifying industry.
  • It comprises inorganic and organic sectors.
  • The inorganic chemicals produced include sulphuric acid, soda ash, nitric acid and alkalis. These are used in the manufacture of soaps and detergents, synthetic fibres, paints, dye-stuffs, plastics, glass and other products.
  • The organic chemicals plants are located close to oil refineries and petrochemical plants as they make use of the by-products of these industries to manufacture synthetic rubber, synthetic fibres, plastics, pharmaceutical drugs and dye-stuffs.
  • The chemical industry itself is the biggest consumer of chemicals. Basic chemicals undergo various processes to produce different other chemicals that are used in industries, agriculture or directly utilised for various purposes.

Fertiliser industry

  • The fertiliser industry is primarily engaged in the production of nitrogenous fertilisers- urea, phosphatic fertilisers and ammonium phosphate, and complex fertilisers.
  • Complex fertilisers are a combination of nitrogen, phosphate and potash.
  • Potash needed for complex fertiliser is entirely imported from other countries to India.
  • This industry expanded greatly after the Green Revolution.
  • The chief fertiliser producing states are Punjab, Kerala, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Rajasthan, Delhi, Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka.

Cement industry

  • The cement industry caters to the construction industry as it is necessary for buildings, bridges, factories, roads, dams and other commercial establishments.
  • Limestone, silica and gypsum are the raw materials required by the cement industry. Other requirements of the industry include the availability of electric power, coal and rail transportation.
  • The first cement plant was established in 1904 in Chennai.
  • Good quality cement produced in India is exported to the countries of East Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South Asia.
  • The cement industry in Gujarat has convenient access to the market in Gulf countries.

Automobile industry

  • Various centres in India manufactures trucks, cars, motorcycles and other three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles.
  • Liberalisation gave a boost to the automobile industry.
  • Due to liberalisation new models became available in India in the 1990s. This increased the demand for passenger cars and two- and three-wheelers.
  • Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai, Indore, Gurugram, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Pune, Lucknow and Jamshedpur are the chief centres of the automobile industry.

Information technology and electronics industry

  • The electronics industry produces a vast variety of electronic items as well as equipment required by the telecommunication industry such as:
    • transistor
    • television
    • radars
    • computers
    • telephones, etc.
  • Bengaluru is the electronics capital of India.
  • Other important cities where the electronics industry is located are Noida, Chennai, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.
  • The information technology industry has grown rapidly in the last three decades.
  • It has effectively generated employment and through the export of IT-enabled services, it has added to the foreign exchange reserves of India.

VI. Environmental Pollution and Degradation, and Control of Environmental Degradation

How are industries responsible for environmental pollution and degradation?

Industries and pollution

Industries, though needed for economic development, are also responsible for environmental degradation through pollution. They cause four types of pollution:

  1. Air pollution
  2. Water pollution
  3. Land pollution
  4. Noise pollution

Air pollution

  • Industries cause air pollution by emitting smoke and releasing harmful gases like sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide into the air.
  • Paper and chemical industries, refineries, brick kilns, and smelting plants are major culprits in air pollution.
  • Air pollution causes environmental degradation and poses threat to human health, plants, and animals.

Water pollution

  • Industries cause water pollution by discharging organic and inorganic wastes into water bodies.
  • Industries such as chemical, pulp, and paper, tanneries, textile and dyeing, electroplating, and petroleum refineries are chief sources of water pollution.
  • Chief pollutants of water are dyes, chemicals, acids, salts, and heavy metals like mercury and lead, pesticides, synthetic chemicals, fertilisers among others.
  • The major solid wastes from industries include iron and steel slag, phospho-gypsum, and fly-ash.
  • The hot wastewater released by many industries and thermal plants causes thermal pollution that adversely affects marine life.

Land pollution

  • Industries contribute to land pollution by dumping solid waste on land.
  • Untreated industrial effluents, chemicals, glass, plastic, salts, and garbage affect soil fertility and make soil toxic.
  • Rainwater that moves through industrial waste and percolates into the soil causes groundwater contamination.
  • Wastes from nuclear power plants also add to land pollution and pose health risks such as birth defects, cancer, and miscarriages.

Noise pollution

  • Industries generate noise pollution through their use of machinery, equipment, electric drills, and generators.
  • Noise pollution has psychological effects such as anger, irritation, and depression.
  • Physiological effects of noise pollution are, among others, hearing impairment, hypertension, stress.

What steps can be taken to control environmental pollution and degradation?

Air, water, land and noise pollution caused by industries has led to environmental degradation. Steps that can be taken to control environmental pollution include:

  1. Reuse and recycling of water used for industrial processing.
  2. Rainwater harvesting by industries to meet their need of water.
  3. Treatment of industrial effluents through three phases — primary, secondary and tertiary — before being released into freshwater bodies such as rivers and ponds.
  4. Reduction in particulate matter in the air by fitting smoke stacks in factories with air pollution controlling devices such as inertial separators, electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers or fabric filters.
  5. Use of oil or gas instead of coal in industries to reduce smoke.
  6. Industrial machinery redesigned or fitted with silencers to make it noise free and energy efficient.
  7. Use of noise absorbing material in factories.


NTPC is an ISO 14001 certified corporation engaged in power generation through the adoption of an efficient Environment Management System (EMS) which was made possible through the following:

  1. Optimum use of equipment by upgrading existing equipment or by bringing in latest technique.
  2. Reducing waste generation by maximising ash utilisation.
  3. Reducing environmental pollution through ash and liquid waste management.
  4. Maintaining ecological balance by providing green belts.
  5. Special Purpose Vehicle is set up as a joint venture by NTPC to promote and undertake afforestation.
  6. Constant monitoring and reviewing of the ecological system at places where NTPC has set up its power plants.

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