The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 History Solutions: Here are given answers to the textbook chapter exercise and the answers to the questions given inside the chapter text (intext). If you have any issues with the answers then contact us and we would improve answers as per requirement.
The Age of Industrialisations Solutions
Intext (Inside Chapter Text) Question Answers
[Activity, Page no-80]
Q. Give two examples where modern development that is associated with progress has led to problems. You may like to think of areas related to environmental issues, nuclear weapons or disease.
Ans. Science is boon as well as bane if not used for rightful purposes. Nuclear armament is the result new technologies. The USA used it on Japan during the Second World War. Millions died and the people there are still facing problems because of the harmful radiations emitted by the bomb. Until today, 9 countries have developed nuclear weapons. In case of any nuclear war in future, the whole world will be destroyed.
Luxuries like air-conditioners as well as Motor-car Industry are responsible for most pollutions today. Vehicles emit the carbon di-oxide and carbon monoxide gases which are very harmful for our health. Air-conditioners release chlortoluron carbons increasing greenhouse impact. Modern development is adding comfort and luxuries bit with side effects which are harmful.
[Activity, Page no-83]
Q. The way in which historians focus on industrialisation rather than on small workshops is a good example of how what we believe today about the past is influenced by what historians choose to notice and what they ignore. Note down one event or aspect of your own life which adults such as your parents or teachers may think is unimportant, but which you believe to be important.
Ans. We’re living in an era of social networking sites and virtual world. We like to have a social life and many friends, online but most parents think that this is a wastage of time. Kids play game on mobile and pc but parents lecture about games on fileds. A generation gap creates clash of interests.
[Activity, Page no-83]
Q. Look at Figs. 4 and 5. Can you see any difference in the way the two images show industrialisation? Explain your view briefly.
Ans. Fig 4 shows a well-lit cotton mill which according to the artist is an impressive sight.
Fig 5 shows an industrial landscape with chimneys emitting smoke. The first figure paints a rosy picture and shows only the positive aspect of industrialisation while the second figure shows the harmful effects (pollution) of the industrialisation.
[Activity, Page no-85]
Q. Imagine that you are a merchant writing back to a salesman who has been trying to persuade you to buy a new machine. Explain in your letter what you have heard and why you do not wish to invest in the new technology.
Ans. A sample letter is given below-
25th August, 1790
This refers to your quotation regarding the new weaving machine which you want to sell us. I am afraid I won’t be able to purchase it because of the following reasons-
(i) The price of the machine is too high for the output that you claim it gives. I don’t have the money to buy it.
(ii) I already have labourers doing the work by hand. There is no shortage of labour here and they are very efficient.
(iii) Since, the requirement is seasonal and I can lay off the workmen when work is not there, I save money at that time. The machine will always remain with me and I will always be paying the interest on the loan that I took to buy it irrespective of whether I use the machine or not.
(iv) The machine can produce only the standardised cloth, whereas different customers demand different designs. I can supply it easily if the cloth is handmade.
(v) If the machine breaks down then I have to spend money to get it repaired which will put financial constraints on me. For all these reasons, I won’t be able to purchase the machine offered by you.
[Discuss, Page no-87]
Q. Look at Figs. 3, 7 and 11, then reread source B. Explain why many workers were opposed to the use of the Spinning Jenny.
Ans. Workers who survived on hand spinning were opposed to the use of spinning jenny as it was taking away their jobs. Earlier, the spinning was done by hand so the whole family got involved in the process of making yarn but now the same work could be done by the machine. Therefore, workers attacked the use of spinning jenny for the fear of loss of employment.
Textbook Exercise Question Answers
Write in brief
1. Explain the following:
(a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
(b) In the seventeenth century, merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.
(c) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century.
(d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.
(a) The reason to attack the spinning jenny was that it speeded up the process of spinning and therefore, it led to the reduction of labour demand, thus causing a fear of unemployment among the women working in the woollen industry. By this time, they had survived on hand spinning and now, new machines were taking over.
(b) The market, raw material, employees and the production of goods in towns were controlled by the trade and commerce guild. This led to creating problems for the merchants who wanted to increase production by employing more men. Thus, they turned to the artisans and peasants who lived in villages.
(c) It was during the end of the 18th century when the port of Bombay got developed by the European colonies. As the European colonisers got hold on the sea trade, the port of Surat did not benefit them like earlier. They secured many concessions from local courts as well as the monopoly rights of the trade. Therefore, leading to the decline of the Surat and Hoogly from where local merchants had operated. Export slowed down and local banks were bankrupted there.
(d) They were appointed for the following reasons – (i) They eliminated the existence of traders and brokers and they established a direct control over the weavers. (ii) With means of advances and control, they dominated their dealings with other buyers. Thus, making the weavers obligated to the British by taking loans and fees in advance.
2. Write True or False against each statement.
(a) At the end of the 19th century, 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
(b) The international market for fine textile was dominated by India till the 18th century.
(c) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.
(d) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.
3. Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation.
(i) The word ‘proto’ means the first or early form of something.
(ii) The period before building up of factories, goods were produced in England and Europe on a very large scale.
(iii) During the proto-industrialisation, handmade products were produced for the industrial market.
1. Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
Ans. Due to the following reasons –
(i) New technologies and machines were expensive, so the producers and the industrialists were cautious about using them.
(ii) Machines often broke down and their repair was expensive
(iii) The supply of workers was more than the demand. Therefore, workers were available at low wages
(iv) In seasonal industries, where production fluctuated with the seasons, industrialists usually preferred hand labour, employing workers only for the season, when it was needed
(v) The demands of market for specific length, variety of colours and designs could not be fulfilled by the machine-made clothes.
(vi) The upper class and the aristocrats preferred handmade goods because they were detailed and refined.
Example: In mid-nineteenth century, Britain, for instance, 500 varieties of hammers were produced and 45 kinds of axes, these required human skill, not mechanical technology.
2. How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?
(ii) The company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weavers.
(ii) It appointed paid servants called the Gomasthas, to supervise weavers, advance loans, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth.
(iii) The system of advances prevented the company weavers from dealing with other buyers. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material. Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the Gomasthas only. They could not take it to any other trader.
(iv) They developed a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control cost and ensure regular supply of cotton and silk goods.
(v) The weavers had to sell at a price dictated by the company. By giving the weavers a loan, the company tied the weavers with them.
3. Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.
Ans. History of cotton was greatly impacted by the industrial revolution as several inventions expedited the production of textiles in less time with less manual labour. So, let’s first mention those inventions.
(i) History of Cotton Related Technological Inventions in the 18th century:
- James Hargreaves invented the – “spinning Jenny” in 1764 – speeded up spinning work significantly.
- John Key – ‘flying shuttle’ in 1769, – speeded up the weaving process.
- Richard Arkwright – improved the spinning Jenny 1769 – so that it could be run by water power. He called it the ‘water frame’.
- Samuel Crompton – “mule” In 1776 – combined the advantage of both the water frame and spinning jenny.
- Edmund Cartwright – invented the Power loom in 1785, – which used steam power for both spinning and weaving.
- Eli Whitney – ‘cotton Jini’ in 1793, – solved the problem of removing seeds from the cotton fibres.
- Arkwright – created a complete cotton mill where all the textile manufacturing process could be completed under one roof and management.
(ii) History of Cotton production and its management:
- Industrial revolution revolutionised the Production of textiles. Its production increased due to steam powered engines in a very short time. At the beginning of 19th century, there were near about 321 steam engines in England and out of them 80 were in use in cotton textile mills.
- The English traders appointed gomasthas, a paid servant of the company. Gomasthas were the link between the East India Company and the weavers. His work was to supervise weavers, collect supplies and judge and inspect the quality of textiles.
- The Indian weavers suffered from machine made cloths. They could not compete and so by the beginning of 19th century, there had been virtually no import of cotton- piece goods into India. Cotton weavers of India faced two problems simultaneously, the export market collapsed and the local market shrank.
- In the 1860s, weavers faced a new problem of insufficient supply of raw cotton from USA due to American civil war. The price of raw cotton increased rapidly due to the big demand of raw cotton export from India. Weavers found themselves unable to pay for it.
- The First World War brought chances of revival of cotton industry in India. After the First World War, Manchester could never capture again its old position in the Indian market. British exports collapsed heavily because the industries there could not match with the USA, Germany and Japan in reference of modernisation and competition.
4. Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?
Ans. There was an increase in the industrial production during the First World War in India due to
the following reasons –
(i) Britishers were involved in the production and supply of the war needs. Therefore, they stopped exporting the British goods or clothes to the colonised countries like India.
(ii) India utilised that opportunity and started selling its goods, which led to the rise of industrial production in India.
(iii) Indian factory owners also played a main role in providing war supplies to the British colonial government like jute, cloth or army uniform, leather boots, and tents, horse and mule saddles, etc.
(iv) This led to the increase in production of the old industries and the increased demands of various products led to setting up of new industries.
(v) Due to increase in production, new workers were employed and there was increase in working hours.