NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 – Development

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics include chapter Development textbook solutions, notes pdf of the chapter Development and Video tutorials of the Chapter development. CBSE revised the syllabus for Class 10 Social Science since the session 2019-20.

NCERT solutions for class 10 economics chapter – Development includes all the study material as per the latest CBSE Syllabus for Class 10  Social Science. Stay here for comprehensive and all relevant authentic study material for Social Science Economics for Class 10 Chapter Development.

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NCERT Solutions Class 1 0, Chapter: Development

Textbook exercises


Page No: 16

Exercises

1. Development of a country can generally be determined by
(i) its per capita income
(ii) its average literacy level
(iii) health status of its people
(iv) all the above

Ans.  (iv) all the above

2. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
(i) Bangladesh
(ii) Sri Lanka
(iii) Nepal
(iv) Pakistan

Ans.  (ii) Sri Lanka

3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs 5000. If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(i) Rs 7500
(ii) Rs 3000
(iii) Rs 2000
(iv) Rs 6000

Ans.  (iv) Rs 6000

4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?

Answer

World bank uses ‘per capita income’ as the main criterion to classify different countries. The countries with per capita income ₹ 82,40,192 p.a. and above in 2013 are considered rich countries, whereas countries with per capita income of ₹ 6, 76, 115 p.a. or less are considered low-income countries. India comes in the middle-income group.

This criterion has its limitations as given below.

  • It does not indicate the distribution of income among people of the country
  • It ignores other criteria that are used by UNDP such as education health.

5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?

Answer

  • World bank uses only per capita income for measuring the development of a country. It is considered a narrow approach toward measuring development and ranking countries.
  • UNDP uses many other factors like infant mortality, healthcare facility education level which help in improving the quality of life and helps in making the citizens more productive. It is considered a broader approach toward measuring the development of a country.

6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.

Answer

Averages help in assessing comparison negating the individual differences. The total income would not reflect the individual differences in the income of people. Here comes the concept of averages to give a much better picture of the income distribution of income.

The use of averages is not the right way to compare and measure the development of countries. It does not talk about the distribution of income among people. A country with a higher average income might not be having an equitable distribution of income and wealth. Some people might be richer while other people are very poorer in that country.

7. Kerala, with lower per capita income, has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.

Answer

Yes, I agree to a great extent that per capita income is not the sole criteria to judge the development of a country. A country has a human population and human development depends on better health conditions; Education civilises us.

Only money cannot make a person happy. UNDP uses such criteria other than per capita income and therefore is a better way to assess the development of a country. HDI gives a better ranking than the per capita income as used by World Bank.

8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?

Answer

The present sources of energy that are used by the people of India are electricity, coal, crude oil, cow dung and solar energy. Other possibilities fifty years from now, could include ethanol, bio-diesel, nuclear energy and better utilisation of wind energy, especially with the imminent danger of oil resources running out.

9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?

Answer

The issue of sustainability is important for development because development must be in tandem with the future. If natural resources are not sustained, then development will stagnate after a point of time. Exploiting resources unethically will ultimately undo the development that a country may have achieved. This is because, in the future, those resources will not be available for further progress.

Page No: 17

10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.

Answer

It is rightly said by Gandhiji “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. The statement is relevant to development in the sense that the mother earth has all to sustain the basic needs of human beings. But man is exploiting natural resources at an alarming speed in the name of development. It shows the greed of man and resources would exhaust soon. The future generation may not have enough resources to benefit the way the man today is using the resources.  

The need of the hour is sustainable development and the conservation of resources. Development should be accompanied by the maintenance of resources to keep and maintain the ecological balance as well as the balance between the availability of resources and development.

11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.

Answer

  • Soil erosion
  • Deforestation
  • Carbon emission released by automobiles
  • Burning of coal
  • Use of chemical fertilisers by farmers

12. For each of the items given in Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.

Table 1.6: Some data regarding India and its neighbours for 2004

Country Per Capita Income in US$ Life Expectancy at birth Literacy Rate for 15+ yrs. population Gross Enrolment Ratio for three levels HDI Rank in the world
Sri Lanka India Myanmar Pakistan Nepal Bangladesh 4390 3139 1027 2225 1490 1870 74 64 61 63 62 63 91 61 90 50 50 41 69 60 48 35 61 53 93 126 130 134 138 137


Answer

(i) Per Capita Income in US$: Top country – Sri Lanka; Bottom country – Myanmar


(ii) Life Expectancy at birth: Top country – Sri Lanka; Bottom country – Myanmar

(iii) Literacy Rate for 15+ yrs. population: Top country – Sri Lanka; Bottom country – Bangladesh

(iv) Gross Enrolment Ratio for three levels: Top country – Sri Lanka; Bottom country – Pakistan

(v) HDI Rank in the world: Top country – Sri Lanka; Bottom country – Nepal
13. The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions.

State Male (%) Female (%)
Kerala Karnataka Madhya Pradesh 22 36 43 19 38 42
All Sates 37 46

(i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.

(ii) Can you guess why around 40 per cent of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.

Answer

(i) The nutritional level of people of Kerala is quite higher than the people – both males and females of Madhya Pradesh. Their ratio of the under-nourished is less than that of Madhya Pradesh.

(ii) There is enough food in the country, even then 40% of the people in the country are undernourished because:

  • A large number of people are so poor that they cannot afford nutritious food.
  • In most of the states, the Public Distribution System (PDS) does not function properly and the poor people cannot get cheap food items.
  • There is lack of educational and health facilities in many parts of the country. So many people remain backward and poor. As such, they are unable to get nutritious food.

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