Constitutional Design Class 9: Here you will find answers to the Intext Questions i.e. the questions given between the chapter text matter. The pictures or cartoons have also been explained. You can click here for more such materials.
Constitutional Design Cartoons & Intext Questions
Page N0. 20
Q. 1. What would have happened in South Africa of the black Minority had decided to take revenge on the whites for all their oppression and exploitation? (Question, Page no. 20)
Ans. If the blacks had not forgiven the whites for all their oppression and exploitation and decided to take revenge upon them, there would have been bloodshed everywhere. It could have led to a division of the country and we would not have seen a united and peaceful South Africa that exists now. Fortunately, the black community followed the policy of non-violence in their freedom struggle.
Q. 2. (i) Make a poster on the life and struggle of Nelson Mandela.
(ii) If available, read some portions of his autobiography, The Long Walk to Freedom, in the classroom.
Ans. Do it yourself.
Page No. 21
Q. 3. The image captures the spirit at South Africa today. South Africans call themselves a ‘rainbow nation’. Can you guess why?
Ans. South Africans call themselves a ‘rainbow nation’. Because there are Whites, Black, Coloured people and Indians in South Africa who have different skin colours. But they are living and working together as one people unified like the colours of a rainbow. They have forgotten the racist brutal, repressive past. Now the transformation of South Africa is truly shared by all its people.
(Check Your Progress)
Q. 4. Does the story of South African struggle for freedom remind you of the Indian national movement? Make a list of similarities and dissimilarities between the two on the following points:
• Nature of colonialism
• Relationship between different communities
• Leadership: Gandhi/Mandela
• Party that led the struggle: African National Congress/Indian
• National Congress
• Method of struggle
|Nature of Colonialism||During the 17th and 18th centuries, the trading companies from Europe occupied South Africa Forcibly in the same way that they had occupied India.||Unlike India a large number of whites had settled in South Africa and become the local rulers|
|Relationship between Different Communities||The white rulers treated all Non whites as inferiors in both the countries. The whites regarded|
Indians and Africans inferior uncivilized people.
|The relationship between different religions and regional communities in India was cordial. They all believed themselves to be Indians. But in South Africa, different communities like the whites, blacks, coloured people relations and respect for each other.|
|Both were apostles of truth and nonviolence.||Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment, though Gandhiji was also put behind the bars several times, but he was not sentenced to life imprisonment|
|Party that Led the|
|Similarities, both the African National Congress (ANC) and the Indian National Congress (INC) were umbrella organizations working national level.||The purpose of both the parties was different. ANC was fighting against apartheid and the segregation policies of the racial African Government. Whereas the INC was fighting against the British rule in India.|
|Method of Struggle||Both the South African struggle and|
Indian National Movement followed
the same policy, i.e., the policy of
|But, In South Africa, there was only one group, that of the moderates, who adopted peaceful means against the government, whereas in India besides the moderates, there were also the extremists, who used violent methods to attain their goal freedom.|
Page No. 21
Q. 6. Approach a club or cooperative society or union or political party in your locality. Get a copy of their rule book (it is often called Rules of Association) and read it. Are these rules in accordance with principles of democracy? Do they give membership to any person without discrimination?
Ans. Do it yourself.
Q. 5. This is not fair! What was the point in having a Constituent Assembly in India if all the basics were already decided?
Ans. We cannot say that there was no point in having a Constituent Assembly to discuss and frame a constitution if the basics had already been decided. The basics were relating right to freedom, universal adult franchise, rights of minorities which are the basis of any democratic society These basics were the guiding principles which were further developed and expanded to establish a welfare state. In a democracy, it is the Constituent Assembly which makes the Constitutions with the help of the basics. So, the Constituent Assembly in India was established, even if all the basics were already decided.
(Activity, Page no. 23)
Q. 7. Speak to your grand–parents or some other elders in your locality. Ask them if they have any memory of partition or independence or the making of the constitution. What were their fears and hopes about the country at that time? Discuss these in the classroom.
Ans. Do it yourself.
(Question, Page no. 24)
Q. 8. Find out more about any member of the Constituent Assembly from your state or region who is not mentioned here. Collect a photograph or make a sketch of that leader. Write a short note on him or her, following the same style as used here: Name (year of birth-year of death), place of birth (by current political boundaries), brief description of political activities; role played after the Constituent Assembly.
Ans. Do it yourself
(Question, Page no. 25)
Q. 9. Read the information about all the makers of the Indian Constitution given in the side columns here. You don’t need to memorise this information. Just give examples from these to support the following statements:
- The Assembly had many members who were not with the Congress
Ans. Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (1875-1950), Jaipal Singh (1903-70), Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891- 1956), Shyama Prasad Mukherjee (1901-53).
- The Assembly represented members from different social groups
Ans. Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel – Leader of Peasants Satyagrgha. Abul Kalam Azad – A theologian, Scholar of Arabic. Jaipal Singh – President of Adivasi Mahasabha. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar – Social revolutionary thinker and agitator against caste divisions and caste-based inequalities., Shyama Prasad Mukherjee – Active in the Hindu Mahasabha.
- Members of the Assembly believed in different ideologies
Ans. Rajendra Prasad (1884-1963), HC Mukherjee (1887-1956), Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), Sarojini Naidu (1879-1949), Somnath Lahiri (1901- 1984), Baldev Singh (1901-1961).
(Question, Page no. 27)
Q. 10. Read the three quotations above (as given below) carefully.
1. Can you identify one idea that is common to all these three?
Ans. The one idea that is common to all these three quotations is the ending of inequality in Indian society.
2. What are the differences in their ways of expressing that common idea?
Ans. In the first quotation, Gandhiji strived for an India in which there should be no higher or lower class of people and all communities should live in perfect harmony. In the second quotation, B R Ambedkar said, “We are going to enter a life of contradictions. In politics, we will have equality but in social and economic life, we will have inequality.”
In the third quotation, Jawaharlal Nehru said about the ending of poverty, inequality, “the service of India means the ending of poverty, ignorance, disease and inequality of opportunity.”
(Check Your Progress, Page no. 30)
Q. 11. Compare the Preambles to the constitutions of the United States of America, India and South Africa.
1. Make a list of ideas that are common to all these three.
Ans. List of ideas that are common to all these three are:
(i) Each of these Preambles starts with, “We, the people.” It means the sources of all authority to govern these countries are the people of these countries.
(ii) In all these three, the idea of justice is embodied.
2. Note down at least one of the major differences among these.
Ans. In the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States, there is a statement for the formation of union, which is not there in the Preambles to the Indian and South African Constitutions.
3. Which of the three makes a reference to the past?
Ans. The Preamble to the Constitution of South Africa makes a reference to the past.
4. Which of these does not invoke God?
Ans. The Preamble to the Constitutions of the United States and India do not invoke God. Both the
Preamble suggests that citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. There is no official religion.