Development: Chapter Notes CBSE Class 10 Economics

Notes of the chapter ‘Development’ Economics Class 10: Good Quality Notes are the best way to have an organised and systematic study of any subject or topic. These notes would help students in understanding and revising the chapter ‘Development’ for CBSE Class 10 Social Exam.

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Development Goals And Aspirations

How does national development take place?


Development means satisfaction of fundamental needs, better lifestyles, peace, social harmony and other desirable conditions, and ways of achieving these goals.2 of 3

How does national development take place?

Developmental at a personal level

  • Everyone has a different idea of development according to one’s own aspirations and desires.
  • Some people seek regular work, higher income and a fair price for their work or products, while others want equal treatment, freedom, security and social harmony.
  • Different persons have different developmental objectives.
  • An urban unemployed youth might aspire to a good salaried job, promotions and so on and consider it development.
  • A rural landless labourer would want more days of work, higher wages and fair treatment from employers and consider it development.

National Development

  • People may also have different and contradictory ideas about national development.
  • To compare different countries, their national income and per capita income are used as measures of development.
  • The World Development Reports, brought out by the World Bank, define countries with a per capita income of US$ 12,056 per annum and above in 2017 as rich countries.
  • Those with a per capita income of US$ 955 or less are called low-income countries.
  • India is in the category of low middle income countries as its per capita income in 2017 was just US$ 1,820 per annum.

Measuring Development: Criteria

Which factors help to study national development of countries?

Developmental factors other than income

  • Income alone is not a reliable predictor of people’s ability to access material goods and services.
  • Other factors to consider when comparing two regions or countries are infant mortality rate (IMR), literacy rate, net attendance ratio, human development index, available public facilities and so on.

Comparison between states

  • According to the per capita income criteria used as the measure of development, Haryana ranks higher than Kerala among Indian states.
  • On the basis of infant mortality rate (IMR), literacy rate, net attendance ratio, human development index, available public facilities and other factors, Kerala surpasses Haryana.
  • Kerala has a low infant mortality rate and a high literacy rate because there are adequate healthcare and educational facilities.
  • This shows that income alone is not a good indicator of development.

Other human development elements

Other human development elements that must be considered as indicators of development are:

  • Infant Mortality Rate (or IMR) is the number of children who die before the age of one year as a proportion of all children born in that year.
  • Literacy Rate is the proportion of the population aged 7 and above who are literate.
  • Net Attendance Ratio is the number of children between the ages of 14 and 15 who attend school as a proportion of the total number of children in the same age group.

Why are public facilities important for citizens?

Public facilities and society

  • The government’s provision of public facilities to the people has a substantial impact on the quality of life enjoyed by citizens and others.
  • Public facilities are critical in providing support services to create viable, sustainable and healthy communities, overcoming social obstacles and enhancing national growth.
  • For all-round growth of the society, the government must offer some vital utilities such as healthcare, sanitation, energy and educational institutions.
  • Therefore, to assess provision of material goods and services to citizens, money alone is not an acceptable development metric.

Public facilities in Indian states

  • According to the per capita income criteria used as the measure of development, Haryana ranks higher than Kerala among Indian states.
  • However, on the basis of Mortality Rate, Literacy Rate, Net Attendance Ratio, Human Development Index, available facilities and other factors, Kerala outranks Haryana.
  • Kerala has a low infant mortality rate because it provides citizens good access to basic healthcare and education.
  • The Public Distribution System (PDS) works successfully in several states.
  • There are problems in the functioning of the PDS shops, but people are finding ways to address them.
  • Thus, health and nutritional status of people in such states is usually better.
  • This shows that income alone is not a good indicator of development. A region also needs good public facilities.

Human Development Report by UNDP

  • The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes the Human Development Report, which evaluates the development of countries based on their people’s educational levels, health status and per capita income.
  • Countries are compared using the HDI (Human Development Index), which is derived using factors such as per capita income, life expectancy and education.

In 2018, India was placed 130th out of 189 countries on this list.4 of 4

BMI as a nourishment determinant

  • The BMI (Body Mass Index) calculation is one method of determining whether adults are malnourished.
  • After dividing a person’s weight (in kg) by his or her height (in metres) squared.
  • The WHO has published a Body Mass Index chart that can be used to identify whether a person is undernourished or overweight.

Sustainability of Development

How will the development remain sustainable?

Sustainable development

  • Development that is ecologically sustainable is defined as development that does not harm the natural environment.
  • It is the process or model of development that meets our current needs without jeopardising future generations’ ability to meet their needs.
  • As natural resources and systems are interconnected, environmental deterioration in one place can have consequences across national or state borders.
  • If development is not sustainable and leads to environmental degradation in one part of the world, its effects would become a worldwide issue.
  • Groundwater, is a natural resource that is replenished by rains.
  • If today we overuse groundwater or lower the water quality through pollution, it will be depleted or so contaminated that we cannot use it in future nor can future generations.

Measures to promote long-term development

  • Increased use of renewable resources: In order to achieve sustainable development, we must encourage the use of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and geothermal.
  • Less use of fossil fuels: Because fossil fuels contribute significantly to greenhouse gases and environmental pollution, they should be replaced with better and environment friendly alternatives.
  • Prevention of global warming: In our daily lives, we should work towards preventing global warming by adopting an eco-friendly lifestyle.

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