‘Sentence Transformation’ is a very important chapter in English Grammar. Here ‘Sentence Transformation’ has been explained with Rules and Examples. School Students of different classes would be able to learn by themselves by self-studying the ‘sentence transformation’ chapter given here.
Transformation of Sentences
Changing the form of sentences without changing the meaning is called the transformation of sentences. The nature of the sentences can be changed without changing the meaning of the sentences.
Transformation of Sentences is done in various ways. The major transformations are done via interchange of –
- Active and passive voice (Click here for this topic)
- Direct and reported speech (Click here for this topic)
- Simple, compound and complex sentences
- Degrees of comparison
- Some other types of transformations
1. Sentences Containing the Adverb ‘too’:
Transformation: ‘too’ is replaced with ‘so …. that’
The transformation of sentence takes place by removing the adverb ‘too’ and by adding a conjunction ‘so…that’. In this way, the following sentences have been changed for your revision.
For example, two sentences are given:
The tree is very high. I cannot climb it.
We can combine the above sentence in two ways –
The tree is too high for me to climb.
The tree is so high that I cannot climb it.
Now study the following examples:
My friend is too rich to be my consort.
My friend is so rich that he cannot be my consort. (Transformed)
You can see how the Transformation of Sentences, containing the adverb ‘too’, takes place without changing the meaning of the sentence.
The news is too good to be true.
The news is so good that it cannot be true. (Transformed)
He drove too fast for the police to catch.
He drove so fast that the police could not catch him. (Transformed)
- He is too proud to beg.
He is so proud that he will not beg.
- It is never too late to mend.
It is not so late that it cannot be mended.
- He is too ignorant for the post of a postman.
He is so ignorant that he is not suitable for the post of a postman.
The postman is so ignorant that he cannot be fit/suitable/selected/ for the post of a postman.
- This shirt is too small for me.
This shirt is so small that it is not suitable for me.
- He speaks too fast to be understood.
He speaks so fast that he cannot be understood.
2. Interchange of Degrees of Comparison
Positive – Comparative – Superlative Degrees
The Transformation of Sentences, containing comparatives, can be done as follows without changing the meaning of the sentences.
We can change the form of sentences into their possible transformations by interchanging them between positive – comparative – superlative degrees.
Examples; Interchange of Positive and Comparative Degrees.
Note: Interchange into superlative degree is generally not possible when two specifics items of comparison are involved. For example, in the first sentence above, comparison is between only two – ‘I’ and ‘you’. in the third sentences between ‘Reena and Poonam’.
|Positive||I am as tall as you.|
|Comparative||You are not taller than me.|
|Positive||I am as strong as him.|
|Comparative||I am not stronger than him. OR. You are not stronger than me.|
|Comparative||Reena works harder than Poonam.|
|Positive||Poonam does not work as hard as Reena.|
|Comparative||That razor is sharper than this one.|
|Positive||This razor is not as sharp as that one.|
Examples: Interchange of all the three Degrees of Comparison
Note: Interchange into all the three degrees of comparison is possible when more than ‘two’ entities are involved. Example: In the first sentences, ‘Mumbai’ is compared to many other cities in India i.e. more than two cities are involved in the comparison. same is with the second example where ‘Reena’ is compared with all the other girls in the class i.e. more than two girls are involved.
|Positive||Very few cities in India are as rich as Mumbai.|
|Comparative||Mumbai is richer that most other cities in India.|
|Superlative||Mumbai is one of the richest cities in India.|
|Superlative||Reena is one of the best girls in the class.|
|Comparative||Reena is better than most other girls in the class.|
|Positive||Very few girls in the class are as good as Reena.|
|Superlative||Poonam is not the tallest girl in the class.|
|Comparative||Poonam is not taller than many other girls in the class.|
|Positive||Many girls in the class are not as least tall as Poonam.|
3. Interchange of Affirmative and Negative Sentences:
While transforming the sentences it should be kept in mind that the meaning should not change.
- The affirmative sentence can be changed into a negative sentence by using ‘no or not’.
- The ‘not’ in the negative sentences should be removed to convert them into affirmative sentences.
|Affirmative||He has courage|
|Negative||He is not without courage|
|Affirmative||Everybody is present.|
|Negative||Nobody is absent.|
|Negative||There was no one present who did|
|Affirmative||I was doubtful whether it was you.|
|Negative||I was not sure that it was you.|
|Negative||Nobody denies it.|
|Affirmative||Everybody admits it.|
|Negative||God will not forget the cry of the humble|
|Affirmative||God will heed the cry of the humble.|
4. Interchange of Interrogative & Assertive Sentences
Transform but do not change meaning. An interrogative sentence can be transformed into an assertive sentence and vice-versa.
|Interrogative||Who does not know him?|
|Assertive||Everyone knows him.|
|Interrogative||When can their glory fade?|
|Assertive||Their glory can never fade.|
|Interrogative||Was he not a villain to do such a deed?|
|Assertive||He was a villain to do such a deed.|
|Interrogative||Who can touch ditch without being defiled?|
|Assertive||No one can touch ditch without being defiled.|
|Interrogative||Is this the kind of dress to be worn for a school function?|
|Assertive||This is not the kind of dress to be worn for a school function.|
|Assertive||We were not sent to this world simply to make money.|
|Interrogative||Were we sent to this world simply to make money?|
|Assertive||I never forget those happy days.|
|Interrogative||Shall I ever forget those happy days?|
5. Transforming Exclamatory sentences into an Assertive sentence:
Sentences expressing strong feelings are called exclamatory sentences. The exclamations can be of wow or despair feelings. The mark of exclamation ‘!’ ends such sentences.
- Exclamatory sentences are transformed into assertive sentences by converting them into a statement.
- Remove any ‘Q. word’ (like – ‘How and What’) or ‘conditionals’ (like – ‘if’) used in the beginning of the exclamatory sentence.
- Add some modifier if needed like – ‘very’
- Insert, if required, a proper verb like – ‘wish’, ‘pray’
- Insert, if required, subject by yourself using pronouns in third person.
Note: The ‘modifiers and inserted words are shown in italics.
|1. How lovely the garden is!||The garden is very lovely.|
|2. What a terrible noise!|
OR What a terrible noise it is!
|It is a very terrible noise.|
|3. How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon the riverbank!||The moonlight sweetly sleeps upon the river bank.|
|4. If only I were young again!||I wish I were young again|
|5. What a delicious meal!||This meal is delicious one.|
6. Transforming the Simple sentence into a Compound sentence:
A simple sentence can be transformed into a compound sentence by enlarging a phrase or word into a co-ordinate clause i.e. the clauses of equal rank.
The coordinating conjunctions are used to join coordinate clauses.
In the following Examples Coordinating Conjunctions are shown in colours.
|Simple Sentence||Compound Sentence|
|1. He must work hard to make up for the lost time.||He must work hard and make up the lost time.|
(This sentence can be made into two parts and
those two parts can be joined by a conjunction
|2. To his eternal disgrace, he betrayed his country.||He betrayed his country and this was to his eternal disgrace.|
|3. Besides robbing the poor child, he also murdered the child.||He not only robbed the poor child but he also murdered the child.|
|4. The teacher punished the children for disobedience.||The children were disobedient so the teacher punished them|
|5. He is admittedly the greatest general of this country.||It has been admitted that he is the greatest general of this country.|
7. Transforming a Compound sentence into a Simple sentence:
|Compound Sentence||Simple Sentence|
|1. We must eat or we cannot live.||We must eat to live.|
|2. You must either pay the bill at once or return the goods.||Failing prompt payment, the goods must be returned by you.|
|3. He must not be late or he will be returned.||In the event of his being late, he will be denied entry.|
|4. He is rich, yet he is not content.||In spite of being rich, he is not content.|
|5. This coat cannot be mine, for it is too big.||Due to its big size, it cannot be mine.|
|6. He is very poor, but he does not complain.||In spite of being poor, he does not complain.|
8. Transforming a Simple sentence into a Complex sentence:
A simple sentence can be transformed into a complex sentence by enlarging a phrase into a subordinate clause i.e. the clauses of unequal rank – a mix of principal and subordinate clauses.
The clause maybe Noun, Adjective or Adverb.
Must Remember ➡A simple sentence comprises only one clause and therefor it is broken into more than one clause to convert it into a complex sentence because a complex sentence comprises more than one clause.
|Simple Sentence||Complex Sentence|
|1. He confessed his crime.||He confessed that he was guilty of the crime.|
(Here the noun (his crime) has been changed into a subordinate clause.)
|2. On the arrival of the mails, the steamer will leave.||The steamer will leave as soon as the mails arrive.|
(Here the adverbial phrase ‘on the arrival of’ has been changed into a subordinate clause.)
|3. I saw a wounded bird.||I saw a bird that was wounded.|
(Here the adjective phrase ‘a wounded bird’ has been changed into a subordinate clause.)
|4. On being punished, he wept.||When he was punished, he wept.|
9. Transforming a Complex sentence into a Simple sentence:
A simple sentence comprises only one clause.
A complex sentence comprises more than one clause and therefore, to make it a simple sentence it needs to be combined in such a way that it contains only one clause which is a principal clause with a subject and a predicate.
In the following examples –
- The subordinate clauses of complex sentences are shown in blue italics.
- See how the subordinate clauses are changed into phrases (in coloured italics) to make a simple sentence with a single clause – Noun Clause or Adjective Clause or Adverbial Clause.
|Complex Sentence||Simple Sentence|
|1. He said that he was an innocent.||He declared his innocence.|
|2. How long I will stay is doubtful.||The duration of my stay is doubtful.|
(Here, the Subordinate Clause ‘how long I will stay’ has been changed into a noun phrase or a noun clause – a single clause makes a simple sentence.)
|3. Tell me where you live.||Tell me your address.|
|4. He died in the village where he lived.||He died in his native place.|
(Here the Subordinate Clause has been changed into an Adjective Clause.)
|5. The moment that is lost is lost forever.||The lost moment is lost forever.|
|6. He was so tired that he could not stand.||He was too tired to stand.|
|7. He will not pay unless he is compelled.||He will pay only under compulsion.|
10. Some Other Examples of Transformations
The verb of a sentence itself can be changed into another verb without (changing) the meaning of the sentence.
Remember that the meaning of the sentence should not change while transformation.
You can see how the Transformation of Sentences takes place in the following examples without changing the meaning of the sentence.
This kind of jokes never amuses me.
This kind of joke never gives me any amusement.
(In this sentence the verb has been changed into its noun form.)
It costs twelve dollars.
Its cost is twelve dollars.
(Here also the verb has been changed into its noun form.)
He has disgraced his family.
He is a disgrace to his family.
He gave a curt reply.
He replied curtly.
(Here the adjective has been changed into an adverb.)
I see him every day.
I see him daily.
This scene is surpassingly beautiful.
The beauty of this scene is surpassing.
(Here the adjective has been changed into its noun form.)