Case study-based extract questions on the chapter ‘The Rise of Nationalism’ are given here for students to practise such questions. Questions are a combination of MCQs and subjective questions as per the latest syllabus 2022-23.
Q.1. Read the extract and answer the questions given below.
How were liberty and equality for women to be defined?
The liberal politician Carl Welcker, an elected member of the Frankfurt Parliament, expressed the following views:
‘Nature has created men and women to carry out different functions … Man, the stronger, the bolder and freer of the two, has been designated as protector of the family, its provider, meant for public tasks in the domain of law, production, defence. Woman, the weaker, dependent and timid, requires the protection of man. Her sphere is the home, the care of the children, the nurturing of the family … Do we require any further proof that given such differences, equality between the sexes would only endanger harmony and destroy the dignity of the family?’
Louise Otto-Peters (1819–95) was a political activist who founded a women’s journal and subsequently a feminist political association. The first issue of her newspaper (21 April 1849) carried the following editorial:
‘Let us ask how many men, possessed by thoughts of living and dying for the sake of Liberty, would be prepared to fight for the freedom of the entire people, of all human beings? When asked this question, they would all too easily
respond with a “Yes!”, though their untiring efforts are intended for the benefit of only one half of humanity – men. But Liberty is indivisible! Free men therefore must not tolerate to be surrounded by the unfree …’
An anonymous reader of the same newspaper sent the following letter to the editor on 25 June 1850:
‘It is indeed ridiculous and unreasonable to deny women political rights even though they enjoy the right to property which they make use of. They perform functions and assume responsibilities without however getting the
benefits that accrue to men for the same … Why this injustice? Is it not a disgrace that even the stupidest cattle-herder possesses the right to vote, simply because he is a man, whereas highly talented women owning considerable property are excluded from this right, even though they contribute so much to the maintenance of the state?’ (NCERT Textbook Page 17)
1. ‘A cattle herder possessed the right to vote, simply because he is a man, whereas highly talented women owning considerable property are excluded from this right.’ What type of bias does this reflects?
- Gender stereotype
- Racial stereotype
- Gender discrimination
- Gender prejudice
2. Identify the reason liberal politician Carl Welcker believes that women require protection of man?
- They lack political rights.
- They have to look after the house.
- They have no property right.
- They are frail and dependent.
3. How does gender equality help in ensuring the dignity of women? Select the appropriate option.
- It empowers women.
- It helps women to carry out different functions.
- It promotes harmony in the family.
- It makes women dependent on the family.
1. Gender discrimination
Women were discriminated against. They were denied political rights even though they had the right to property. A cattle herder had the right to vote solely because he was a man while more learned women were denied this right.
2. They are frail and dependent.
The liberal politician Carl Welcker said that woman is weaker than man and needs the protection of man.
3. It empowers women.
Gender equality empowers women. It makes them independent and gives them power and control over their own lives inside and outside their homes.
Q.2. Read the extract and answer the questions given below.
Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They owned estates in the countryside and also town-houses. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage. This powerful aristocracy was, however, numerically a small group. The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry. To the west, the bulk of the land was farmed by tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and Central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs. (NCERT Textbook Page 8)
1. Which among the following is true about peasantry?
- Numerically a dominant class
- Socially a dominant class
- Fluent in French
- Owners of town houses
2. Which among the following was the pattern of landholding in Eastern and Central Europe?
- Small holdings
- Fragmented landholding
- Permanent fallow
- Expansive tracts
3. Which among the following factors connected the families of landed aristocracy?
- French language
- Strength of their population
- Common occupation
- Ties of marriage
1. Numerically a dominant class
The majority of the population in Europe comprised of the peasantry, who worked on land as tenants, small owners or serfs.
2. Expansive tracts
In Eastern and Central Europe, the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs.
3. Ties of marriage
Aristocracy was a numerically small group. Most of the aristocratic families were connected by marriage.
Q.3. Read the extract and answer the questions given below:
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family – should be preserved. Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary days. Rather, they realised, from the changes initiated by Napoleon, that modernisation could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy. It could make state power more effective and strong. A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy and the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe. In 1815, representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power, and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon. A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future. (NCERT History, Page 10-11)
1. Which of the following statements correctly describes European conservative ideology?
- Preservation of two sects of Christianity
- Preservation of traditional beliefs in state and society
- Preservation of socialist ideology in the economic sphere
- Preservation of beliefs introduced by Napoleon
2. Identify the purpose to convene the Congress of Vienna in 1815?
- To declare completion of German unification
- To restore conservative regime in Europe
- To start the process of Italian unification
- To declare war against France
3. What did conservatives focus on at the Congress of Vienna? Select the appropriate option.
- To introduce democracy in France
- To set up a new parliament in Austria
- To establish socialism in Europe
- To re-establish peace and stability in Europe
4. How did the Congress of Vienna ensure peace in Europe? Select the appropriate option.
- By giving power to the German confederation
- By not giving Austria control of Northern Italy
- By laying out a balance of power between all the great powers in Europe
- By the restoration of Bourbon dynasty
1. Preservation of traditional beliefs in state and society
Conservatives believed that traditional institutions of state and society, like the Church, monarchy, social hierarchies, family and property should be preserved.
2. To restore conservative regime in Europe
The Congress of Vienna in 1815 tried to achieve conservative order by restoring the conservative regime in power in different countries. For instance, the Bourbon dynasty which was deposed during French Revolution was restored to power.
3. To re-establish peace and stability in Europe
After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 at Waterloo, the representatives of European states met at Vienna to draw a settlement that would ensure peace and stability in Europe. They wanted to maintain a balance of power by containing the imperialist policies of nations like France and at the same time setting up a series of states on the boundaries of France.
4. By laying out a balance of power between all the great powers in Europe
All this was achieved through changes in the map of europe. The Bourbon dynasty was restored to power in France. The kingdom of Netherlands was set up in the north, and Genoa was added to Piedmont. Prussia was given new territories while Austria was given control of northern Italy. Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia received a part of Saxony. In this way, the Treaty sought to achieve a balance of power between the great European powers.
More Questions will be added soon