Climate chapter class 9 important questions including the previous years’ CBSE Board questions are given here with their answers. These important questions will surely help the students in preparing this chapter climate for class 9 students.
Climate Chapter Class 9 Extra CBSE Exam Questions
Q. Define Climate and Weather. What are the common elements between the two? 
Climate: Sum total of Weather conditions and variations over a large area for a longer time is called Climate.
Weather: State of Atmosphere over an area at any point of time is known as Weather.
Common elements: Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, Humidity and Precipitation.
Q. What is meant by the term ‘Monsoon’? Mention main characteristics of the Monsoon. 
Ans. The word Monsoon is derived from the Arabic word ‘Mausim’, which literally means ‘Season’. Monsoon refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year.
Characteristics of Indian Monsoon:
(i) They are not steady winds but pulsating in nature. They vary from year to year.
(ii) They have tendency of breaks in rainfall. It has wet and dry spells. They take place only for a few days at a time
Q. 1. What are South-Western Monsoon winds?
Ans. Air moves from the high pressure area over the southern Indian ocean, in a south-easterly direction, crosses the equator, and turns right towards the low pressure areas over the Indian subcontinent. These are known as South-West Monsoon Winds.
Q. Why does India have a monsoon type of climate? 
(i) Climate of India is strongly governed by the monsoon winds. Monsoon winds are confined to tropical lands between 20° North and 20° South.
(ii) In the Indian subcontinent, the Himalaya’s guide the flow of the monsoon winds bringing the whole of subcontinent under the influence of these winds.
(iii) These winds account for 75% to 90% of annual rainfall from June to September.
(iv) It is influenced by South–West monsoons, Retreating monsoons and North–East monsoons
Q. Which part of India does experience the highest diurnal range of temperature and why?
Ans. Diurnal range of temperature means the difference between the day and night temperature. It is highest in the Thar Desert, Rajasthan. The day temperature may rise to 50°C and drop down to near 15°C the same night because being away from the sea, and sand is heated very fast during the day and cools very fast during the night.
Q. What is the effect of latitude on the climate of India?
Ans. The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country. Almost half of the country, lying south of the Tropic of Cancer, belongs to the tropical area and areas north of the Tropic, lies in the sub-tropics. Therefore, India’s climate has characteristics of tropical as well as subtropical climates
Q. What is the effect of altitude on the climate of India?
Ans. India has mountains to the north, which have an average height of about 6,000 meters. India also has a vast coastal area where the maximum elevation is about 30 meters. As we move up the altitude temperature decreases. The Himalayas prevent the cold winds from Central Asia from entering the subcontinent. It is because of these mountains that this subcontinent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to central Asia.
Q. 3. What influence has the Himalayas on India’s climate? (2011)
Ans. The Himalayas, the lofty mountains, have provided India with a compact physical setting. The Himalayas protect the sub-continent from the northern winds. These cold and chilly winds originate near the Arctic Circle and blow across central and eastern Asia.
Q. What is Coriolis force? Describe its effect on climate
(i) Coriolis force is an apparent force caused by the earth’s rotation. It is responsible for deflecting winds towards the right in the northern hemisphere and towards the left in the southern hemisphere. This is also known as ‘Ferrel’s Law’.
(ii) Under this effect, the winds moving from sub-tropical high pressure belts to equatorial low pressure belts become north-east winds in the northern hemisphere and south-east winds in the southern hemisphere. Consequently, they become cause of heavy rainfall in the east coast, but the west coast remains dry.
Ans. Jet Streams are a narrow belt of high-altitude westerly winds in the Troposphere. Their speed varies from about 110 km/h in summer to about 184 km/h in winter.
(i) Little amount of winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains are an impact of western cyclonic disturbances from the Mediterranean Sea.
(ii) They have immense importance for the cultivation of Rabi crops as they cause rain in winter in India North India.
Q. What are western cyclonic disturbances and how does it influence the climate of India? 
(i) ‘Western cyclonic disturbances’ are a weather phenomenon of the winters.
(ii) They are brought in by the westerly flow from the Mediterranean region.
(iii) They usually influence the weather of the north and north-western regions of India.
Q. What are Tropical cyclones?
- They occur during the monsoon, as well as in October and November.
- These disturbances affect the eastern coastal regions of India.
- They originate over the Andaman Sea and are often very destructive.
Q. Give a brief note on the ‘Inter Tropical Convergence Zone’.
- The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone is a trough of low pressure in equatorial latitudes.
- This is where the north-west and the south-east trade winds converge.
- This convergence zone lies more or less parallel to the equator but moves north or south with the apparent movement of the Sun.
Q. What is an El Nino effect?
Ans. El-Nino is a name given to the periodic development of a warm ocean current along the coast of Peru as a temporary replacement of the cold Peruvian current. It is a Spanish word meaning ‘the child’, and refers to the baby Christ, as these current starts flowing during Christmas. The presence of the El-Nino leads to an increase in sea-surface temperatures and weakening of the trade winds in the region.
Q. What are the characteristic features of monsoon rains in India?
Ans. The characteristic features of monsoons in India are:
(i) The Monsoon rains are pulsating in nature.
(ii) They can cause heavy rainfall in one part and droughts in the other.
(iii) They are known for their uncertainties.
Q. Which parts of India receive rainfall in cold weather season and why?
(i) Coast of Tamil Nadu-During the cold weather season, the northeast trade winds prevail over the country. They blow from land to sea. In their way they pick up moisture from Bay of Bengal and give rainfall to the Tamil Nadu coast.
(ii) Due to the inflow of cyclonic disturbances from the west and the northwest. These low-pressure systems originate over the Mediterranean Sea and western Asia and move into India, along with the westerly flow. They cause the much-needed winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains. Although the total amount of winter rainfall locally known as ‘mahawat’ is small, they are of immense importance for the cultivation of ‘rabi’ crops.
Q. What is October heat?
Ans. The months of October-November form a period of transition from hot rainy season to dry winter conditions. The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature. While day temperatures are high, nights are cool and pleasant. The land is still moist. Owing to the conditions of high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes rather oppressive during the day. This is commonly known as ‘October heat’.
Q. Differentiate between ‘Burst of Monsoon’ and ‘Break of the Monsoon’. 
Burst of the Monsoon: Rainfall increases suddenly and continues constantly for several days.
Break of the Monsoon: It means wet and dry spells of rain. The monsoon rainfall takes place only for a few days at a time, these rainless intervals in between are called as “breaks in rainfall”
Q. What is ‘Kaal Baisakhi’?
Ans. Kaal means destruction or calamity brought in the month of Baisakh. It is known as ‘Kaal Baisakhi’. It occurs in West Bengal and are pre-monsoon showers.
Q. What are ‘Mango-Showers’? 
Ans. Mango showers are the pre-monsoon showers taking place on the coast of Kerala and Karnataka. Since they help in the early ripening of mangoes, they are called Mango showers.
Q. What is ‘loo’? 
‘Loo’ Strong, dusty, hot and dry winds blowing during the day over the North and North- western India.
Q. Which regions of India receive heavy rainfall due to south-west monsoon winds? 
Ans. The windward side of the Western Ghats receives very heavy rainfall, more than 250 cm. The maximum rainfall of this season is received in the north-eastern part of the country. Mawsynram in the southern ranges of the Khasi Hills receives the highest average rainfall in the world.
Q. Name the regions that receive low rainfall.
Ans. In western Rajasthan and adjoining parts of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab; Interior of the Deccan plateau and East of the Sahyadris; Leh in Jammu and Kashmir.
Q. Where is Mawsynram located? Why does Mawsynram receive the highest amount of rainfall? [CBSE 2012]
Ans. Mawsynram receives the highest amount of rainfall because it is enclosed by hills on three sides. The relief features give this place a tunnel-shaped location. The Bay of Bengal monsoon branch is trapped in these hills. The winds try to get out of it, but are forced to pour down there
Mawsynram is located in the southern ranges of the Khasi Hills at a height of 1,500 m above the sea level. It receives the highest rainfall in the World. Annual rainfall is about 1,140 cm.
Q. “There is great variation in the amount and type of precipitation in India.” Justify the statement. 
Ans. The western and the North-eastern parts of India receive above 400 cm rainfall. The western Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab receive 60 cm rainfall. Interior of Deccan Plateau, the East of Sahyadris and Leh also receive low rainfall. Rest of the country gets moderate rainfall. The Himalayan region experiences snowfall. The annual rainfall is highly variable from year to year. Variability is high in the region of low rainfall such as Rajasthan, Gujarat and leeward side of the Western Ghats.
Q. 5. Why do the Western Ghats receive more rainfall than the Eastern Ghats? Explain briefly. 
Ans. (i) The Western Ghats receive rainfall from the Arabian Sea monsoon winds.
(ii) They do not allow these winds to cross over without shedding their moisture on the western slopes.
(iii) A part of these winds that reaches the Eastern Ghats is almost dry.
Q. Why is the monsoon considered a unifying bond?
Ans. The seasonal alternation of the wind systems and the associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons that binds the whole country. Even the uncertainties of rain and uneven distribution are very much typical of the monsoons.
The Indian landscape, its animal and plant life, its entire agricultural calendar and the life of the people including their festivities, revolve around this phenomenon. Year after year, people of India from north to south and from east to west eagerly await the advent of the monsoon. These monsoon winds bind the whole country by providing water to set the agricultural activities in motion.