Question answers of the chapter ‘Forest and Wildlife Resources’ are given here. Answers of the Intext questions are also given. These answers of class 10 geography chapter ‘Forest and Wildlife Resources’ have been written according the patterns of the CBSE Board Exams.
Q. 1. Multiple Choice Questions
(i) Which of these statements is not a valid reason for depletion of flora and fauna?
(a) Agricultural expansion.
(b) Large scale developmental projects.
(c) Grazing and fuelwood collection.
(d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation.
Ans. (c) Grazing and fuelwood collection.
(ii) Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation?
(a) Joint Forest Management
(b) Beej Bachao Andolan
(c) Chipko Movement
(d) Demarcation of Wildlife Sanctuaries.
Ans. (d) Demarcation of Wildlife Sanctuaries
Q. 2. Match the following animals with their category of existence.
|Animals/Plants||Category of existence|
|Andaman wild pig||Endangered|
|Himalayan brown bear||Vulnerable|
|Pink head duck||Endemic|
|Animals/Plants||Category of existence|
|Andaman wild pig||Endemic|
|Himalayan brown bear||Rare|
|Pink head duck||Extinct|
Q. 3. Match the following:
|Reserved forests||other forests and wastelands belonging to both communities|
|Protected forests||forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources|
|Unclassed forests||forest lands are protected from any further depletion|
|Reserved forests||forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources|
|Protected forests||forest lands are protected from any further depletion|
|Unclassed forests||other forests and wastelands belonging to both communities|
Q. 4. (i) What is bio-diversity? Why is bio-diversity important for human lives?
(ii) How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain
(i) We humans along with all living organisms form a complex web of the ecological system. For example:
(a) The plants, animals and micro-organisms recreate the quality of the air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil that produces our food, without which we cannot survive.
(b) Forests also play a key role in the ecological system as these are also the primary producers on which all other living beings depend.
(ii) (a) Forests provide us food, wood, barks, leaves, rubber, medicines, dyes, wood fuel, manure, etc. So we ourselves (human beings) have depleted our forests and wildlife by overusing them.
(b) The greatest damage inflicted on Indian forests was during the colonial period due to the expansion of railways, agriculture, commercial and scientific forestry and mining activities.
(c) Even after independence, agricultural expansion continues to be one of the major causes of depletion of forest resources.
(d) Major parts of the tribal belts, especially in north eastern and central India have been deforested or degraded by shifting cultivation, a type of slash and burn agriculture.
(e) Since 1951, lots of forests were cleared for river valley projects like the ‘Narmada Valley Project’ in Madhya Pradesh which has cleared 40,000 hectares of forests.
(f) Mining is another important factor behind deforestation. The Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal is seriously threatened by the ongoing dolomite mining.
(g) Many environmentalists feel that the greatest degrading factors behind the depletion of forest resources are grazing and fuel wood collection.
Q. 5. Answer the following questions:
(i) Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India?
(ii) Write a note on good practices towards conserving forests and wildlife.
(i) (a) In some areas of India, local communities are struggling to conserve these habitats along with government officials, recognising that this would secure their livelihood also.
(b) In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers have fought against mining by citing the Wildlife Protection Act.
(c) In many areas, villagers themselves are protecting habitats and rejecting any government involvement.
(d) The inhabitants of five villages in the Alwar District of Rajasthan have declared 1,200 hectares of forests as the ‘Bhairodev Dakav Sonchuri’, declaring their own set of rules and regulations which do not allow hunting and emphasises on protecting the wildlife against any outside encroachments.
(ii) Conservation Movements:
(a) Chipko Movement: It was organised in the Himalayas, to resist deforestation in several areas. They also opted for community afforestation to save indigenous species. They made attempts to revive the traditional conservation methods.
(b) Beej Bachao Andolan: Farmers and citizens group in Tehri have shown that diversified crop production is possible without the use of synthetic chemicals and these methods are economically viable.
(c) Joint Forest Management (JFM): It is a good example of involving local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests. The programme was started in 1988 when the state of Odisha passed the first resolution for Joint Forest Management. JFM depends on the formation of local institutions that undertake protection activities mostly on degraded forest land managed by the forest department. In return, the members of these communities are entitled to intermediary benefits like non-timber forest produces and share in the timber harvested through successful protection.