Manufacturing Industries Chapter Topic Wise Questions with answers: A sequential presentation of questions helps in organised and well-arranged and systematic understanding learning.
Importance of Manufacturing
1. Analyse the role of the manufacturing sector in the economic development of India. (2019, 18, 17, 16)
OR. “The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries.” Support the statement with arguments. (2018, 17, 16)
OR. “Manufacturing sector is considered as the backbone of economic development of a country.” Support the statement with examples. (2017, 15)
Answers: (More than one answers are given here)
Definition of manufacturing: Production of goods in large quantities after processing raw materials into more valuable products is called manufacturing
- Manufacturing industries aid in modernisation of agriculture
- Utilise natural resources increasing their productivity via value addition.
- Reduce dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs
- Help in eradicating unemployment and poverty
- Bring down regional disparities by public sector and joint ventures in backward and tribal areas
- Trading in export earns valuable foreign exchange
- It increases the GDP/ National Income of the country
- Prosperity lies in the diversification of manufacturing industries with quality and valuable products.
- Example- Cotton textile, Iron and Steel industry, etc
The economic development of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries in the following ways –
- (i) Manufacturing industries help in modernising agriculture which forms the backbone of our economy.
- (ii) They reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
- (iii) Industrial development is a pre-condition for the eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country.
- (iv) Manufacturing activities expand trade and commerce.
- (v) Exports bring in much needed foreign exchange.
- (vi) Manufacturing is the process of value addition.
- (vii) It also brings down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
- (viii) It increases the GDP/ National Income of the country
Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of an economy because of the following reasons:
(a) Utilization of Natural Resources: Utilization of huge volume of natural resources has become possible with the development of industries in the country.
(b) Balanced Sectoral Development: Growth of Industrialization in the country can attain balanced sectoral development and it can reduce the too much dependence of the economy on the agricultural sector.
(c) Enhanced Capital Formation: Increasing volume of investment in industries has led to enhancement in the rate of capital formation in the country.
(d) Increase in National Income and Foreign Exchange: Industries contribute a good portion of the total national income of our country.
(e) Increase in Job Opportunities: It Increases the job opportunities for a large section of population of the country.
(f) Reduces Regional Disparities: Development of Industries brings down regional economic and social disparities as incomes rise and people from different strata of the society work together.
2. Explain the examples of the interdependence of agriculture and industries. (Delhi 2017)
OR. ‘Agriculture’ and ‘Industry’ are complementary to each other.” Explain with five examples. (Delhi 2014)
- (i) Agro industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity.
- (ii) Industries depend on agriculture for their raw materials.
- (iii) Industries sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, etc., to the farmers.
- (iv) Industries have made production processes of agriculture very efficient.
- (v) Income generated by industrial sector makes its workers richer so they can afford more food stuff. Similarly, money in the hand of agricultural labour makes him able to afford more manufactured goods.
Another Answer (2)
Agriculture and industry both depend on each other
- (i) Agriculture supplies raw materials (cotton, sugarcane, jute etc.) for the manufacturing industries. Shortage of these raw materials can spell doom for the industry.
(ii) Agriculture gets its basic inputs form the manufacturing industries.
- (iii) In this way agriculture offers a big market for industrial products, fertilizers, water pumps, tractors, farm equipment etc.
- (iv) In short, agriculture and industry are not exclusive of each other they move hand in hand.
3. What is the contribution of manufacturing industry to the national economy?
- The share of manufacturing sector has stagnated at 17% of GDP.
- The share of this sector is much lower than some East Asian countries with between 25 to 35 %. It is 36 % in China and 35 % in Thailand. The Make in India initiative is essentially to create the right environment for manufacturing sector to grow.
- The 7 % rate of growth in manufacturing sector has shown some trends of growth at 9 to 10 % since 2003.
- The desired growth rate has been set at 12 percent
- NMCC- (National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council) has been set up to achieve the desired growth rate with the help of appropriate govt. policies and renewed efforts to improve productivity.
Q. 1. Explain with examples any five factors that are responsible for industrial location. [2019, 15, 14]
- The key decisions of the of the factory location – least cost, govt. policies, and specialised labour.
- Availability & Proximity of raw material at low cost.
- Availability of specialized labour.
- Availability of capital and markets
- Services facilities like banking, insurance, efficient transport, etc.
- Availability of power and other infrastructure
- advantages of agglomeration economies
The location of industries depends on a number of physical and socio- economic factors among which following are the major ones:
(i) Availability of raw material: Industries are usually situated near the source of raw materials, as large quantities of raw materials are required. This helps to reduce transportation costs. For instance, steel centres are developed near coal and iron sources, while jute mills in West Bengal and cotton textile mills in Maharashtra are located near the raw materials.
(ii) Availability of power resources: Coal, oil, and hydro power are the main sources of power for most industries. As a result, many industries are situated near coal fields, while aluminum and paper industries are located near hydroelectric stations.
(iii) Availability of means of transportation: Modern industries require cheap, developed, and efficient means of transportation. This is necessary for the movement of workers, raw materials, and machinery to the factories.
(iv) Climate: Climate is also an important factor to consider when locating industries. Stimulating weather conditions can increase the efficiency of laborers. For example, the cotton textile industry requires a humid climate, while the film industry needs good weather with clear blue skies. Similarly, the aircraft industry also requires clear weather.
(v) Cheap & skilled labour: The availability of cheap and skilled labour is also an essential consideration when locating industries. The glass industry in Firozabad and the sports goods industry in Jalandhar are located near areas with an abundant supply of skilled labour.
2. What is meant by agglomeration economies?
Agglomeration economies refer to the benefits that firms and individuals can gain from locating near one another. This concept is based on the idea that there are certain advantages to clustering businesses and people in a specific geographic area, which can lead to increased productivity, innovation, and economic growth.
Cities offer many services like banking, insurance, transport, labour, and financial advisors. These services are helpful to industries. Many industries choose to be located in cities because they can benefit from what’s called “agglomeration economies.”
This means that when industries come together in a city, they can share resources and skills, and this can help them grow and develop more easily. When this happens on a large scale, it’s called an industrial agglomeration. In simple terms, it means that different industries work together in a city to help manufacturing industries grow.
Classification of Industries
1. Classify industries on the basis of source of raw material. How are they different from each other? [ 2016]
2. Classify industries on the basis of their main role. How are they different from each other? 
3. Classify industries on the basis of capital investment. How are they different from one another? Explain with examples. 
4. Classify the industries on the basis of ownership and give one example of each category. (2012)
5. Classify industries on the basis of bulk and weight.
On the basis of sources of raw material, industries are classified as :
(i) Agro-based industries: These industries are based on agricultural raw material, e.g., cotton, jute, silk, rubber, sugar, tea, coffee and edible oils.
(ii) Mineral-based industries: Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries, e.g., iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals, etc.
Classification of industries according to their main role:
(i)Basic or Key Industries: These industries supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods, e.g., iron and steel, copper smelting, aluminium smelting.
(ii) Consumer Industries: These industries produce goods which are directly used by consumers, e.g.,
sugar, paper, electronics, soap, etc.
Large Scale Industries:
- (i) Manufacture large quantities of finished goods.
- (ii) The quantity of raw material and capital investment is large.
- (iii) Overall investment is more than Rs. 10 crores.
- (iv) Example: Iron and steel industry, cotton textile industry.
Small Scale Industries:
- (i) Manufacture small goods.
- (ii) No huge quantity of raw material as well as capital is required.
- (iii) Maximum investment allowed on the assets of a small-scale industry unit is 1 crore. This limit keeps changing over a period of time.
- (iv) Example: Garment industry, soap making industry
Public Sector: Owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL etc.
Private Sector: Owned and operated by individuals or their groups. Examples – TISCO, Reliance, Hero Moto Corp.
Joint Sector: These industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by the public and private sector.
Cooperative Sector: These industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. The resources are pooled by each stakeholder and profits or losses are shared proportionately. AMUL which is a milk cooperative is a good example. The sugar industry in Maharashtra is another example, coir industry in Kerala.
Heavy Industries: Heavy raw materials used are Iron and Steel.
Light Industries: Light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical industries.
The industries based on agricultural materials are called agro-based industries.
1. “The textile industry is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain”. Justify the statement. (2016)
OR. “The textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy”. Elaborate this statement with appropriate arguments. (2015, 14, 12)
- Textile industry comprises mainly cotton and jute textile industries
- It contributes significantly to Industrial production
- Provides direct employment to millions which is second largest employment after Agriculture
- Earns foreign exchange for India
- In India it is the only self-reliant industry with a complete value chain set up – from raw materials to finished products
- Textile industry also supports demands for other Industries such as chemicals, dyes, packaging materials.
1. Describe any three major problems faced by cotton textile industry in India. [2017, 15, 14]
Ans. Three major problems faced by cotton textile in India are:
- (i) The weaving knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high-quality yarn that is produced in the country.
- (ii) There are some large and modern factories in those segments but most of the production is in fragmented small units which cater to the local market. This mismatch is a major drawback for the industry.
- (iii) Power supply is erratic and machinery needs to be upgraded in the weaving and processing sectors in particular.
- (iv) Low output of labour
- (v) stiff competition with synthetic fibre industry
2. Why was the cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton growing belt Maharashtra and Gujarat in the early years? Explain. (2015, 14)
Ans. Concentration of textile mills in Maharashtra and Gujarat
- i. Availability of raw material – large production of cotton in the reason ensures good supply of raw cotton to the industry.
- ii. Moist climate – Such climate in the region is suitable for the growth of cotton
- iii. Cheap labour – There is no dearth of labour force in the cities of Mumbai and Ahmedabad. Moreover, migrated people to earn a living are available there.
- iv. Port facilities – Major export is made from Mumbai port.
- v. Transport and market – a good network of roadways, railways, water ways help in the movement of raw materials to industries.
3. Explain the importance as how cotton textile industry is linked with agriculture.
- It has close links with agriculture. Provides living to many – farmers, cotton boll puckers.
- Indirect employment to workers engaged in spinning, weaving, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.
- Support to cottage industry- large scale employment to weavers in their homes such as hand spun Khadi weavers.
- Supports demands for other Industries such as chemicals, dyes, packaging materials
4. “Many of our spinners export cotton yarn while apparel manufacturers have to import fabric.” Explain this statement with appropriate reasons. 
(i) The weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high-quality yarn that is produced in the country. Therefore, many of our spinners export cotton yarn while apparel/garment manufacturers have to import fabric.
(ii) If weaving sector is improved, then yarn can be used in the country and garments can be exported to earn more foreign exchanges for the country.
(iii) Although the production of staple cotton has increased but we still need to import good quality staple cotton.
1. The jute-textile industry is mainly concentrated in the Hooghly basin. Mention five factors or reasons for the same. (SQP 2018, Board 2016, 14, 12, 11, 09, 08)
- Proximity of the jute producing areas. Raw jute is easily available as West Bengal is the largest producer of jute in the world.
- Abundant water for processing of jute. This industry requires a lot of water.
- Cheap labour is available from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Orissa, UP
- Cheap water transport and good network of roadways, railways facilitate movement of goods
- Port facilities. Kolkata port is used for export purposes
- Kolkata is a metro city with good services of banking, insurance and other commercial facilities.
2. Explain the problems faced by jute Industry. State any one step taken by the government to stimulate the demand for jute. (2017, 11, 12)
- Stiff Competition from synthetic substitutes has caused decline in demand for jute.
- Competition from countries like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.
- After partition most of the jute producing areas have gone to Bangladesh creating shortage of raw jute in India.
- Govt. Jute Policy: In 2005, National Jute Policy was formulated with the objective of increasing productivity, improving quality, ensuring good prices and enhancing the yield per hectare.
1. Why are sugar mills concentrated in sugarcane producing areas? Explain problems faced by sugar industry in India. (2016)
OR. Analyse any three major challenges faced by the sugar industry in India. 
Ans. Sugar industries are concentrated in the sugarcane producing areas:
- (i) Sugarcane is a perishable good, it loses its sucrose content if delays in transportation occurs, so it needs to be in the nearby place.
- (ii) Sugarcane is bulky and perishable, so transportation cost reduces.
- (iii) Near it is to the production area, its production automatically increases.
- (iv) The raw material used in the sugar mills, that sugarcane is bulky.
- (v) In haulage, its sucrose content reduces.
Challenges & problems:
- Seasonal nature of the industry.
- High cost of production due to old and inefficient methods of production
- Heavy, weight losing and perishable during transport
- Delay in transportation of sugarcane to mills
- Low sugar content
- Seasonal nature of sugar industry
- Sugarcane Industry suits most to cooperative sector
- Need to maximise the use of bagasse.
2. Why is there a tendency for the sugar mills to concentrate in Southern states of India in recent years? Give three reasons. 
Ans. Shifting of sugar industries to Southern states like Maharashtra is because:
- (i) Sugarcane that grows there has higher sucrose content.
- (ii) Favourable climate provides longer crushing period and growing season.
- (iii) Cooperatives are successful in these states.
- (iv) Modern mills have more crushing capacity.
Mineral Based Industry
Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral based industries.
Iron and Steel Industry
1. Why is iron and steel industry is called the basic Industry? Explain any three reasons. (2013, 2012)
OR. “Production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country’s development.” Examine the statement. (2014)
Ans. Iron and steel Industry is the basic industry as other industries —heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery.
- Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods.
- It is also needed as construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.
- Finished products also need an efficient transport network for their distribution to markets and consumers.
- Steel is the major raw material for construction of transport network.
- We also import good quality steel from other countries. However, the overall production of steel is sufficient to meet our domestic demand.
Production of iron and steel is an index of development of a country:
- Steel production is the backbone of any country’s economy since it is the basic unit for the development of the nation.
- Consumption of steel shows the level of industrialisation and consumer demand in a country.
- Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) is the supreme marketing authority.
- Liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investment have given a boost to the industry in private sector.
- Thus, it can be concluded that growth in production of steel is regarded as the index of country’s development.
2. Give reasons why the iron and steel industry in India is concentrated around the Chhota Nagpur plateau region.
(2018, 16, 12, 10, 08)
Ans. Chhota Nagpur plateau has the maximum concentration of iron ore and steel industry- & reasons are as follows:
Low cost of iron ore– The transportation cost is low because of nearness to ores-sites. The required inputs are easily available.
Proximity to high grade raw materials– Limestone, coking coal are easily available for the industry at minimal delay to make it run efficiently.
Cheap labour-The adjoining states of Bihar, Odisha and Jharkhand provide cheap, hard and skilled labour force to the industry cutting the cost of production.
Market potential– The home market in India itself has a lot of potential for the growth of this industry. The production of steel is well consumed in domestic market.
3. “India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world. Yet we are not able to perform to our full potential.” Suggest and explain any three measures to get full potential. (2019, 17, 16, 13)
OR. Explain any three problems faced by Iron and steel industry in India. (2011)
Ans. In the 1950s China and India produced almost the same quantity of steel. Today, China is the largest producer of steel. China is also the world’s largest consumer of steel.
Iron & steel industry not able to perform to its potential because of the following problems faced by iron and steel industry:
- a) High cost and limited availability of cooking coal.
- b) Limited availability of coking coal
- c) Lower productivity of labour
- d) Irregular or erratic supply of energy
- e) Poor infrastructure
- f) No proper allocation of resources for research and development.
1. Analyse the role of chemical industries in the Indian economy. [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans. Role of chemical industries in the Indian Economy:
- The chemical industry is fast growing in India both in organic and inorganic sectors.
- This industry comprises both large and small manufacturing units.
- It is the 3rd largest in Asia and occupies the 12th place in the world.
- It contributes approximately 3% of the GDP
- The chemical industry is its own largest consumer. Basic chemicals are further processed to produce other chemicals for industrial application, agriculture or consumer market.
- Organic chemicals include petrochemicals which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibres, rubber, plastics
and dye stuffs.
- Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid, fertilizers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints etc.
- Example: Sulphuric acid- used to manufacture fertilizers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuffs.
1. Mention any two factors that have contributed to a healthy growth of the automobile industry in India. Name two centres where the industry is located. (2011)
OR. Examine the impact of liberalisation on the automobile industry of India. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. Two factors that have contributed to a healthy growth of the automobile industry in India are:
- After the liberalisation, the coming in of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market, which led to the healthy growth of the industry including passenger cars, two and three-wheelers.
- Globalisation has led to a heavy rise in demand of these vehicles since products from around the world can be ordered sitting at home.
- The industry is located around Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.
Information Technology and Electronics Industry
The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, telephone exchange, radars, computers and many other equipment required by the telecommunication industry.
1. What are software technology parks? State any two points of significance of information technology (IT) industry in India. (2012)
Software Technology Park: Software technology parks provide single window service and high data communication facility to software experts.
Significance of IT industry:
- (i) A major impact of this industry has been an employment generation.
- (ii) It is encouraging to know that 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women.
- (iii) This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in the last two or three years because of its fast-growing Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) sector.
- (iv) The continuous growth in the hardware and software is the key to the success of the IT industry in India.
- (v) It has helped in the growth of the service sector
- (vii) Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India.
Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation
1. Explain five types of ‘industrial pollution.’ 
OR. How are industries responsible for environmental degradation? Explain with examples. (2019, 16)
- Caused by rise in proportion of undesirable gases like sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide.
- Airborne particulate material like dust, sprays, smoke by factories, brick, smelting plants, kilns, refineries,
- Burning of fossil fuels is also a major reason
- Effects- on human, animals, plants, buildings and atmosphere
- Caused by organic and inorganic Industrial wastes and affluent.
- Main gents are pulp, paper, chemical, dying, refineries, fertilizer, electroplating industries plastics, rubber etc.
- Solid wastes include fly ash, physio-gypsum and iron and steel slags.
- Caused by release of untreated hot water into rivers and ponds.
- Effects- on humans and acratic life. Nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancer, birth defects and miscarriages.
- Soil pollution by dumping of non-biodegradable wastes also contaminates water.
- Unwanted or undesired sounds from transport vehicles, Industrial units, construction work, drill machines as well human activities cause noise pollution.
- Effect- stress, irritation, hearing impairments, increased heart rate and blood pressure and other physiological defects.
- It is caused by dumping of wastes, especially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts and
garbage. It renders the soil useless.
- When rainwater percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the ground water also gets contaminated
2. How has the ever-increasing number of industries in India made worse position by exerting pressure on existing fresh water resources? Explain
Ans. Increasing number of industries exerting pressure on fresh water resources:
- (i) Industries are heavy users of water.
- (ii) More demand of hydroelectric power.
- (iii) Industrial effluents are discharged into the rivers. They include both organic and inorganic matter such as coal, dyes, soaps, pesticides and fertilizers, plastics and rubber. These are major water pollutants.
- (v) Multiplying urban centres, due to industries, has caused pressure on water resources.
3. How can the industrial pollution of fresh water be reduced? Explain various ways. 
Ans. Control of industrial pollution of fresh water:
- (i) minimising use water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages
- (ii) Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirement.
- (iii) Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
- (iv) Legally regulating the overuse of ground water reserves by industries that pose a threat to ground water resources
- (v) Installing water treatment plants at the industrial sites for recycling.
- (vi) Chimneys should be fitted with electrostatic precipitators to prevent release of suspended particulate matters.
4. Suggest any three steps to minimize the environmental degradation caused by the industrial development in India. (2017, 16, 13)
OR. Explain any five measures to control industrial pollution in India. 
Ans. Three steps to minimise the environmental degradation caused by Industrial development in India are:
- Water Pollution Control
Energy lite of waste water discharged by one industry pollutes eight times the quantity of fresh water.
(i) Minimising use of water for procuring by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive
(ii) Harvesting of rain water can be done to meet water requirement.
(iii) Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
- Air Pollution Control
(i) Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with
electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
(ii) Smoke can be reduced by using oil or natural gas instead of coal in the factories.
- Noise Pollution Control
(i) Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers.
(ii) Almost all machineries can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
(iii) Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of ear plugs and earphones.
Measures to control Environmental degradation.
- Minimising use of water, recycling or reusing it in successive stages
- Rainwater harvesting
- Treatment of Industrial effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds
- Particulate matter in the air can be fixed by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers, fabric filters and inertial separators.
- Smoke emission in air can be reduced by replacing coal by oil and gas.
- Reduction in noise pollution can be done by fitting generators with silencers, upgrading and redesigning of machinery
- Use of noise absorbing material like earplugs and earphones.
- Instructing industries to be set up far from residential areas.
Q. 5. Explain the pro-active approach adopted by the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) for preserving the natural environment and resources. 
NTPC is a major power providing corporation in India. It has ISO certification for EMS (Environment Management System) 14001.
The corporation has a proactive approach for preserving the natural environment and resources like water, oil and gas and fuels in places where it is setting up power plants. This has been possible through
- i) Optimum utilisation of equipment adopting latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.
- ii) Minimising waste generation by maximising ash utilisation.
- iii) Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance and addressing the question of special purpose vehicles for afforestation.
- iv) Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.
- v) Ecological monitoring, reviews and online database management for all its power stations.