Nationalism in India Question Answers Class 10 History CBSE

Nationalism in India Class 10 history: Here you get the solutions and answers to the Intext questions given inside the chapter text and answers to chapter exercise. Nationalism in India Chapter solutions are written here with a goal of full marks in Board exams.

Nationalism in India – Exercise Solutions

Write in brief

1. Explain: 

a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement? 

b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India?

c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act?

d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?


a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement? 

The feeling of nationalism binds the people together on the basis of common citizenship, heritage and shred history etc. A nationalist wants a free and strong nation. In all the colonies of the world, the imperialist power exploited the people socially, religiously, economically and politically. So happened in India also and the struggle to get India free of the British control was an anti-colonial movement as it was against a colonial power.

  • Colonization affected people’s freedom, and nationalist sentiments surged during the process of struggle against imperial domination. 
  • The sense of oppression and exploitation became a common bond for people from different walks of life, and this resulted in the growth of nationalist ideals. 
  • People started uniting against the colonialism which strengthened sense of nationalism further. 

Thus, growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to anti-colonial movements. 

b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India?

There was extensive anger and opposition against the British colonial rule because of their oppressive policies as listed below. 

  • There was forced recruitment in the rural areas of India by the British army during the First World War
  • To finance the defence expenditure, high custom duties and income taxes were imposed. 
  • During 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India resulting in acute food shortages.
  • Epidemics also accounted for 12 to 13 million deaths.
  • The Montague- Chelmsford Reforms of 1919 could not satisfied the aspirations of the Indians. There arose a general discontent among the Indian masses against the British rule. 
  • Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, disintegration of the Ottoman Empire that caused the Khilafat Movement were some other factors behind the growth of nationalism in India.

c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act?

  • The Rowlatt Act was passed by the Imperial Legislative Council passed in 1919. It was passed hurriedly despite oppositions by Indian members.
  • It gave the government autocratic powers to repress political activities besides allowing it to detain political prisoners without a trial, for two years. 
  • The Indian were outraged by this act as it was clearly undemocratic and oppressive, and hurt national sentiments and dignity. 
  • Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, condemned it as a black legislation and strongly opposed this act. Meetings were held everywhere and processions were taken out.
  • It was the first time when the Indians unitedly opposed the Britishers through their opposition to this draconian Rowlatt Act.

d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?  

  • Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement due to various incidents of violence perpetrated by the masses, especially the Chauri Chaura incident in 1922 where the people clashed with the police, setting a police-station on fire. 
  • Gandhiji felt that the people were not yet ready for a mass struggle, and that satyagrahis needed to be properly trained for non-violent demonstrations. 

2. What is meant by the idea of satyagraha? Answer: 

  • Satyagraha is a novel method of mass agitation in a non-violent way. 
  • The idea of Satyagraha emphasized upon the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true and if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.  
  • Through non-violent methods a Satyagraha could appeal the conscience of the oppressor by the power of truth. 
  • Gandhiji firmly believed that the truth was bound to be ultimately triumph. 

Gandhiji incorporated Satyagraha in national movements through passive resistance, consisting of defiance of laws, non-payment of taxes, boycott of government institutions etc.

3. Write a newspaper report on: 

 a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre 

b) The Simon Commission 


(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre

Jallianwala Bagh is situated in Amritsar (Punjab). On Baisakhi day, a large crowd of people, mostly from neighbouring villages, unaware of the prohibitory orders in the city, had gathered in this small park to protest against the arrest of their leaders, Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal. The army surrounded the gathering under order from General Dyer and blocked the only exit point and opened fire on the unarmed crowd killing around 1000.

The incident was followed by uncivilised brutalities on the inhabitants of Amritsar. The entire nation was stunned. Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood in protest. Gandhi was overwhelmed by the total atmosphere of violence and withdrew the movement in April 1919.

(b) The Simon Commission 

An all-white, seven member Indian Statutory Commission, popularly known as the Simon Commission (after the name of its Chairman Sir John Simon) was constituted by the Tory Government in Britain in November 1927. The objective of the Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest some constitutional changes. 

The Indian response was against the commission as it had not a single Indian member It was seen as a violation of the principle of self-determination, and a deliberate insult to the self-respect of Indians. The Commission landed in Bombay in February 1928.

On that day, a countrywide strike was organised and mass rallies were held. Wherever the commission went, there were black flag demonstrations, hartal and slogans of ‘Go back Simon’. All parties, including Congress and the Muslim league, participated in the demonstrations. Thus, it brought a sense of unity in Indians for the moment.   

4. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania Chapter 1. 

 Ans.  The image of Germania was the symbol of German nation whereas the image of Bharat Mata was the symbol of Indian nation. Both images inspired nationalists to struggle to unify their respective countries into a nation.

In visual representations, Germania, painted by Philip Veit, wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.

Abanindranath’s image of Bharat Mata shows her as imparting learning, food and clothing. A mala is worn by her, which shows aesthetic quality. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

Another painting of Bharat Mata in which we find Mata holding Trishul and standing beside a lion and an elephant – symbols of power and authority. This image appears to be more akin to the image of Germania, painted by Lorenz Clasen, where she holds a sword and a shield.


 1. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921.Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement. 

Ans. The different social groups that joined the Non-cooperation Movements of 1921 were the urban middle class comprising lawyers, teachers and headmasters, students, peasants, tribals and workers.

  • Middle class people in towns – In towns, middle class people who consisted of students, teachers and lawyers responded to the clarion call of non-cooperation and boycott. They saw the movement as a passport to freedom from foreign rule. They boycotted foreign goods and clothes and liquor shops were picketed
  • Peasants and Tribal people – In various places, peasants and tribals also participated in the movement. The movement was launched against the talukdars and landlords. For them, Swaraj meant that they would not be required to pay land dues i.e., land revenue and the land they were cultivating would be distributed amongst them. When the colonial government began forcing the tribal people to contribute “begar (free labour)’’ for road building, they revolted. They revolted against the enclosure of large forest tracts by the British government, which left them devoid of a livelihood as well as traditional rights.
  • Plantation workers – They desired freedom to move about and retain links with the villages they came from. They hoped that Gandhi raj was coming, and everyone would be given land in his own country

2. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism. 

Ans. Salt march was an effective symbol or tool for resistance against colonialism because:

  • All classes could identify with salt as it was an essential food item. Tax on salt and monopoly over its manufacturing was a sign of the oppression of British rule.
  • The Salt March was effective also because Gandhiji met a large number of commoners during the march and he taught them the true meaning of swaraj and non-violence. By peacefully defying a law and making salt against government orders.
  • Gandhi started his famous salt march accompanied by 79 of his trusted volunteers. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhi’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town Dandi.
  • Gandhiji reached Dandi on 6th April,1930 and violated salt law by manufacturing salt from sea water. Breaking the salt law was an apparent defiance of British authority. People were not only asked to refuse cooperation with the British, but to break the unjustified colonial law.
  • Thousands of the people from different parts of the country broke salt law, manufactured it and demonstrated in front of government salt factories. This Salt March set forth the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.
  • Gandhiji’s Salt March set forth an example to the whole nation of how the oppressor could be confronted in a non-violent manner. 

3. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life. 

 Ans. I participated in the National Movement for the first time by being a part of the Civil Disobedience Movement. It was feeling of pride for me. During Gandhi’s ‘Salt March’, I participated with thousands of women who came out of their homes to listen to him. We also participated in manufacturing salt, protest marches, picketed foreign goods and liquor shops. Women like me who came from the high caste families also joined in the protests in the urban areas. We all took part in the movements with great enthusiasm. We all stood by men and suffered physical blows with them. Even though it did not bring us any status in the movements but we all contributed in the struggle for freedom of our motherland. Even in Gandhi’s views, a women’s place was at home; as mothers, and good wives. The Congress also on the other hand did not give us any position in the organisation but we with all made our presence felt by our hard work and enthusiasm. There were many famous personalities amongst us like Sarojini Naidu, Kamla Nehru, Annie Beasant, who contributed to the national movements. 

Question 4. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates? 


The Britishers sowed in the seeds of “Divide and rule” by bringing ‘separate Electorates’, which would weaken the national movement. Gandhiji was opposed this divisive policy while Ambedkar and Muslim league favoured it.

  • Political leaders differed sharply over the question of separate electorates because of differences in opinion. 
  • While those supporting the cause of minorities and the Dalits believed that only political empowerment would resolve their social backwardness, Dalit leaders like Dr Ambedkar demanded for a separate electorate. 
  • others like Gandhiji thought that separate electorates would further slowdown the process of their integration into society. Also, it was feared that the system of separate electorates would gradually divide the country into numerous fragments because every community or class would then ask for separate representations. 
  • Even Muslim leaders favoured the separate electorates as they feared their identity and culture would be in danger due to domination of majority. 

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