The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Important Extra Previous Years CBSE Questions Class 10 History

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The Rise of Nationalism in Europe- Important Questions Years: 2020 to 22


Q.1. Examine the significance of the Statue of Liberty in Frederic Sorrieu’s paintings,’ The Dream of the World Wide Democratic and Socialist Republics’. (2020)

Ans. In the Sorrieu’s paintings the ‘Statue of Liberty’ is personified as women bearing the Torch of Enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of the Rights in the other. The statue signifies the rise of nationalism to establish nation states based on democratic principles with inalienable human rights.

TOPERS ANSWERS

Q.2. How did the Greek War of Independence mobilise nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe? Explain. (2020, 11)

Ans. Greek war of independence mobilized the nationalist feeling in Europe through the following ways:

(i) Greece was viewed as a part of Europe that had been annexed by Ottomans and now needed to be liberated.

(ii) Greece perceived as the foundation and cradle of civilisation in Europe by poets and artists and this led to nationalist consciousness.

(iii) Greek nationalists received support from other Greeks living in exile.

Q.3. Why is it said that the 1830s were the years of great hardships in Europe? Explain. (2020, 19, 17, 16,)

Ans. The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship or crisis in Europe due to the following reasons:

(i) The first half of the 19th century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.

(ii) Job-seekers were more and employment opportunities were less.

(iii) People from rural areas migrated to cities and made cities over-crowded slums.

(iv) Small producers often faced stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods.

(v) Peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.

Q.4. How did nationalism align with imperialism to become the cause of the First World war? Explain. (2020)

Ans. The Balkan states had become the region of intense rivalry among the Balkan states themselves for independence as well as the big powers for expansion and influence in the region. Reasons for the growth of nationalist tension in Balkan region:

(i) The Balkan was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising of modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro. The inhabitants were called Slavs.

(ii) The spread of romantic nationalism led to its disintegration.

(iii) Different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity.

(iv) Balkan region became a region of intense conflict over expansion of territory.

(v) At the same time, the great European Powers –Russia, Germany, England and Austria-Hungary were keen on taking the control of the Balkan region, since it was important from trade point of view.

(vi) This led to the series of wars in the region and finally became the cause of the First World War.


Important Previous Years’ Questions


Frederic Sorrieu’s Paintings

Describe the significance of the Statue of Liberty in Frederic Sorrieu’s paintings “The dream of worldwide democratic and socialist republics”? (2020)

Ans. In the Sorrieu’s paintings the ‘Statue of Liberty’ is personified as women bearing the Torch of Enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of the Rights in the other. The statue signifies the rise of nationalism to establish nation states based on democratic principles with inalienable human rights.


Impact of the French Revolution

1. Describe the event of the French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe. (2015)

(i) Students and other members of educated middle class began to set up Jacobin clubs.

(ii) Their activities and campaigns paved the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and large parts of Italy.

(iii) Due to the outbreak of various revolutionary wars the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.

(iv) Thus, a sense of collective identity prevailed upon the people in other parts of Europe.

2. “The first clear expression of nationalism came with the ‘French Revolution’ in 1789.” Examine the statement. (2017)

Ans. The event of the French Revolution was so big a movement toward creating a nation state that it is regarded as the first clear expression of nationalism in Europe as it inspired the people in other parts of Europe as well.

The events of the French Revolution that influenced the people in other parts of Europe are as follows:

(i) A new French flag was adopted to replace former Royal Standard.

(ii) The Estates General renamed as General Assembly, became an elected body.

(iii) Centralised administration and uniform civil laws were made for citizens.

(iv) Uniform weighing and measurement system was adopted.

(v) French became the national language of France.

The revolution gave people true power to shape the destiny of France. France became a nation-state and the world got a clear expression of nationalism through the French Revolution.

3. What was the status of France as a state before 1789? Which two political and constitutional changes came in the wake of the French Revolution? (2015)

Ans. Before 1789, France was a full-fledged territorial state under an absolute monarchy.

The two changes are:

  • The French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from monarchy to a body of citizens. This spread the message of rule by people’s representatives
  • The revolution demonstrated that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny. So, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.

Rise of Nationalism – Developing a Sense of Collective Identity

1.  Describe steps taken by French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people? (2017, 16, 12, 10)

Ans. The French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that created a sense of collective identity amongst the French people—

(i) The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.

(ii) A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former Royal Standard.

(iii) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.

(iv) New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.

(v) A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all the citizens within its territory.

(vi) Internal custom duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.

(vii) Regional dialects were discouraged and French was promoted as the common language of the nation.


Napoleonic Code

1. List any three features of the Civil Code of 1804 usually known as the Napoleonic Code.

OR. How had Napoleonic code exported to the regions under French control? Explain with examples.

Ans. Napoleonic Code of 1804 was exported to the regions under the French control with the following changes:

(i) Administrative divisions were simplified.

(ii) Feudal system was abolished.

(iii) The laws Freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.

(iv) In towns, guild restrictions were removed.

(v) Transport and communication system improved.

2.     How did the local people in the areas conquered by the Napoleon react to the French rule? (2014)

OR. Describe the impact of Napoleonic reforms on the rest of Europe. (2015)

Ans. The impact of Napoleonic reforms in the rest of Europe was or the reaction of local people to the Napoleonic rule was as follows:

  • At the beginning, many places such as Holland, Switzerland, Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw, the French armies were welcomed and greeted as harbinger of liberty.
  • Later on, the Napoleonic rule became unpopular because people were disillusioned and turned foe when they had to face increased taxation, censorship and forced conscription. These problematic issues seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.

3. Why was the Napoleonic rule over other regions unpopular with some sections of Europe? (2012)

Ans. The causes of unpopular Napoleonic rule over other regions were:

  • Administrative reforms did not go hand-in-hand with political freedom in the newly conquered territories annexed into the French rule.
  • The newly annexed regions had to bear increased taxation and censorship.
  • The compulsory enlistment into the French armed forces to win other regions of Europe was not popular with the newly conquered people.

4.  Explain the changes which Napoleon introduced to make the administrative system more efficient in Europe (2011).

OR. “Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make whole system more rational and efficient. “Analyse the statement with arguments. (2016)

Ans. Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.

(i) All privileges based on birth were removed.
(ii) He had established equality before law.
(iii) Right to property was given.
(iv) Simplified administrative divisions were made.
(v) Feudal system was abolished and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
(vi) Guild restrictions were removed.
(vii) Transport and communication systems were improved.
(viii) Standardised weights, measures and a common national currency was introduced.


New Conservatism – Treaty of Vienna

1. Who hosted ‘Vienna Congress’ in 1815? Analyse the main changes brought by the ‘Vienna Treaty.’ [Delhi: 2017]

OR. How did conservatives establish their power after 1815? (2016,12)

OR.  Explain the objectives of the Treaty of Vienna. (2011,12)

OR. How did the Treaty of Vienna change the map of Europe? (2012)

OR.  Explain any three provisions the treaty of Vienna of 1815. (2012)

Answer:

  • A New-Conservatism prevailed after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. The new conservative order was established through the Treaty of Vienna 1915.
  • The objectives of the Treaty of Vienna 1815 were to undo the victories of Napoleon and restore Europe to the revolutionary era with restoration of monarchies to establish a new conservative order.
  • Congress of Vienna was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich in 1815.

The following changes were made to redraw or change the map of Europe.:

  • The Bourbon Dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power and France lost the territories it had annexed.
  • A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent the French expansion in future. Thus,
  • The kingdom of the Netherlands, which included Belgium, was set up in the north and Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south.
  • Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers, while Austria was given control of northern Italy.
  • The German confederation of 39 states that had been set up by Napoleon was left untouched

2. Why did most of the ‘conservative regimes’ impose censorship laws to control printed material associated with the French Revolution in 1815? (2019)

Answer:

  • The regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic. They did not tolerate criticism and dissent.
  • They sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of their governments.
  • Censorship laws were imposed to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays and songs and reflected the ideas of liberty and freedom associated with the French Revolution.
  • The memory of the French Revolution nonetheless, continued to inspire liberals.

3.  Why in the years after 1848, the autocrats of central and Eastern Europe began to introduce the changes that had already taken place in Western Europe before 1815? Explain. (2016)

Answer:

(i) There were numerous revolutions after the Treaty of Vienna challenging the conservative forces and the monarchies. Though conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, they could not restore the old order.

(ii) Monarchs were beginning to realise that the cycles of revolution and repression could only be ended by granting concessions to the liberal-nationalist revolutionaries.

(iii) Some steps were taken to address some issues that irked the people most. In the years after 1848, the autocratic monarchies of Central and Eastern Europe began to introduce the changes that had already taken place in Western Europe before 1815.

(iv) Thus, serfdom and bonded labour were abolished both in the Habsburg dominations and in Russia. The Habsburg rulers granted more autonomy to the Hungarians in 1867.


Liberalism and Zollverein

1. How were the ideas of national unity in early nineteenth century Europe closely allied to the ideology of liberalism? Explain. (2020)

OR.  What does the term ‘Liberalism’ mean? What did it mean to different classes and people? (2012)

Answer:

Ideology of Liberalism

(i) Liberalism is derived from the Latin word ‘liber’ which means ‘free’.

(ii) Liberalism in the early 19th century stood for freedom for the individual and equality to all before law for the new middle classes.

(iii) Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent.

(iv) It stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges.

Ideas of national unity that allied to the ideology of liberalism:

(i) The abolition of state-imposed restrictions

(ii) Freedom for the individual

(iii) Equality of all before the law.

(iv) The concept of government by consent.

(v) End of autocracy and clerical privileges

(vi) A constitution and representative government through parliament.

(vii) Freedom of markets.

(viii) Removal of restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

2.  Explain the conditions that were viewed as obstacles to the economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during the nineteenth century in Europe? (2014)

OR. Interpret the concept of ‘liberalisation’ in the field of economic sphere during the 19th century in Europe. (2019)

Ans. The following conditions were viewed as obstacles to the economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during the nineteenth century in Europe:

(i) The absence of freedom of markets.

(ii) State-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

(iii) Time-consuming calculations resulting from the difference in currency, weight and measurement

3. How did a wave of economic nationalism strengthen the wider nationalist sentiment growing in Europe? Explain. (2015)

Ans. Economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiment. Economically, liberalism stood for:

(i) Freedom of markets.

(ii) End of state -imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

(iii) A customs union or zollverein was formed by Prussia in 1834, which was joined by many German states. This union reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two and abolished tariff barriers.

(iv) A network of railways led to great mobility and gave an impetus to national unity.

(v) It was assumed that economic unification like Zollverein would pave the way for national unification.


Giuseppe Mazzini

1.  What happened during the year following 1815 when the fear of repression drove many liberal-nationalists underground? Explain. (2016)

OR.  How had revolutionaries spread their ideas in many European states after 1815? Explain with example. (2014)

Answer: After 1815, many liberal nationalists went underground for the fear of repression by autocratic monarchies.

(i) Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. Carbonari was one such secret society with many members as revolutionaries.

(ii) To be revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress, and to fight for liberty and freedom.

(iii) Most of these revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom.

(iv) The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini founded two underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.

(v) Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So, Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations.

(vi) Following the footsteps of Mazzini, many secret societies were set-up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland

(vii) Mazzini‘s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.

2.  Describe the role of Giuseppe Mazzini as an Italian revolutionary. (2012)

Ans. The role of Giuseppe Mazzini as an Italian revolutionary:

Giuseppe Mazzini was a famous Italian revolutionary was born in 1807 in Genoa.

  • He was the part of a secret society called Carbonari.
  • In 1831, Mazzini was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
  • He founded two secret societies—Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne. Members of these societies were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and German states.
  • Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind.
  • Mazzini believed in the unification of the small kingdoms and principalities in Italy to form a republic.
  • Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republic frightened the conservatives.

Greek War of Independence

How did Greek War of independence mobilise nationalists feeling among the educated elite across Europe? (2020, 2011)

Answer:

(i) Greek war of Independence of 1821 was a successful war waged for independence of Greece which had been a part of Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century.

(ii) Revolutionary Nationalism inspired this struggle. West Europeans and Greeks in exile supported this struggle against the huge Muslim empire.

(iii) Greek poets and artists used the rich ancient heritage and culture of Greece to mobilise public opinion by calling it ‘the cradle of European civilisation’.

(iv) The English poet Lord Byron, organised funds, fought in war and died of fever in 1824.

(v) Treaty of Constantinople declared Greece Independent in July, 1832.

Another Answer:

Greek war of independence mobilized the nationalist feeling in Europe through the following ways:

(i) Greece was viewed as a part of Europe that had been annexed by Ottomans and now needed to be liberated.

(ii) Greece perceived as the foundation and cradle of civilisation in Europe by poets and artists and this led to nationalist consciousness.

(iii) Greek nationalists received support from other Greeks living in exile. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe 25

(iv) Many Europeans had a natural sympathy for the ancient Greek civilisation.

(v) Europeans and Greek nationalist were against the Muslim Empire.


Romanticism – Role of language and Folk Culture

1. Define the term Romanticism. How did it facilitate the promotion of nationalist sentiment? (2016)

OR.  How did Romanticism pave the way for Nationalism in Europe? Explain. (2012)

Answer.

Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiments in the following ways.

(i) Critical approach towards reason and science: Romantic artists criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused on emotions, intuitions and mystical feeling.

(ii) Folk culture as the spirit of the nation: Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances, the true spirit of nation could be popularised. The Polish composer Karol Kurpinski celebrated and popularised the Polish nationalist struggle through his operas and music, by turning folk dances into nationalist symbols.

(iii) Emphasis on vernacular language: They gave emphasis on vernacular language to recover the national spirit and to carry the modern nationalist message to large audience who were mostly illiterate.

(iv) Language as a symbol of national resistance: Language also played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. For example, it was mainly used as a weapon of national resistance when the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere in Poland. Many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national
resistance.

Toppers Answers

A Topper’s Answer

2. “The development of nationalism did not come about only through wars and territorial expansion. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation.” Elaborate upon the statement. (2016)

OR.  How did Nationalism develop through the culture in Europe? Explain. (2015)

OR.  How did culture play an important role in Europe in creating the idea of the nation? (2012,13)

Ans. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of a nation because of the following reasons:

(i) Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment

(ii) Romantic artists and poets generally criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused instead of emotions, intuitions and mystical feelings.

(iii) Art, poetry, stories and music helped in shaping nationalist feelings in Europe.

(iv) A sense of shared collective heritage based on common cultural past was developed and projected as the basis of the nation.

(v) German philosopher Johann Gottfried popularised true spirit of nation through folksongs, folk poetry and folk dance.

(vi) Speaking in the vernacular language was another expression of nationalism.

Long Answer:

Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation:

(a) Art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings.

(b) Romanticism, a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Though they generally criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Their effort was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.

(c) Romantics such as the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people – das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularized.

(d) The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore ignited the national spirit, and carried the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate. This was especially so in the case of Poland, which had been partitioned.

(e) Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed. Many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance. Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instruction.

3.  Explain the role of languages in developing the national sentiment in Europe. (2011)

  • Vernacular languages and local folklores played an important role in creating the idea of nation in Europe.
  • This was especially so in the case of Poland which had been partitioned by the great powers — Russia, Prussia & Austria.
  • Karol Kurpinski of Poland celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the Polonaise, Mazurka into nationalist symbols. l
  • After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. l
  • Many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance. l Polish was used for church gatherings and all religious instructions. l
  • As a result, a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities. l
  • The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance.

Years of Great Hardship – 1830s

Why were the years of 1830s of great hardship in Europe? Explain any five reasons. (2011)

OR. “The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe”. Support the statement with arguments. (2020,19,17, 16, 12, 11)

Ans. Economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s:

(i) There was enormous increase in population all over Europe. In most countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment.

(ii) Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.

(iii) Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England.

(iv) In those regions of Europe where the aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.

(v) The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.


July Revolution of 1830

What were the effects of revolutionary upheaval in France in 1830? (2011)

Ans. The first upheaval took place in France in July 1830. The Bourbon kings who had been restored to power during the conservative reaction after 1815, were now overthrown by liberal revolutionaries, who installed a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe at its head. Metternich once remarked, “When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold.” The July Revolution sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdoms of the Netherlands.

Main Points

  • The first upheaval took place in France in July 1830.
  • The Bourbon Kings, who had been restored to power during the conservative reaction after 1815, were now overthrown by liberal revolutionaries, who installed a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe at its head.
  • Most of the European countries followed France persistently and that is why Metternich said, ‘When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold’.
  • The July revolution sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
  • An event that mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe was the Greek war of Independence.

1848 Revolution of the Liberals

1. Why was the period of 1848 considered as phase of the revolution of the Liberals in Europe? Explain. (CBSE SQP 2020-21)

Ans. The period of 1848 was considered as phase of the revolution of the Liberals in Europe because of the following reasons:

(i) Events of February 1848 in France had brought about the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed.

(ii) Germany, Italy, Poland, the Austro-Hungarian Empire – men and women of the liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification.

(iii) They took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.

(iv) In the German regions a large number of political associations whose members were middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all German National Assembly.

(v) The middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support. In the end troops were called in and the assembly was forced to disband.

(vi) The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years.

(vii) Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstration.

2.  Explain the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals? (2012)

Ans. The educated middle class led the Revolution of Liberals in 1848. They emphasised upon the following ideals:

(i) Politically, they stressed on the establishment of government by consent, freedom of press.

(ii) Socially, they asserted the abolition of all hereditary privileges.

(iii) Economically, they stood for abolition of trade restrictions imposed by the state.

(v) Middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt to vote for an all-German National Assembly.

Frankfurt Parliament

(i) On 18 May, 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul.

(ii) A Constitution was drafted which instructed the German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament.

(iii) The parliament lacked a broader support as the parliament was dominated by the middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans.

(iv) King of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm IV rejected the offer of crown and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly.

(v) The Assembly could not sustain the opposition from monarchy and Junkers. It was forced to dissolve and was disbanded.

3. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals, in Europe? (2011)

(i) The 1848 revolution was led by the educated middle class along with the poor, unemployed starving peasants and workers in many European countries for fulfilling their demand of constitutionalism with nation unification.

(ii) Political ideas: – In German regions, large number of political associations whose member were middle class professionals, business man and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for all German National Assembly.

(iii) Social ideas: – A large number of women had participated actively and formed their own political associations founded newspapers, took part in political meetings and struggled for right to vote.

(iv) Economic ideas: – Liberals struggled for abolition of serfdom and bonded labour and wanted freedom of market.

(v) Though conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, they could not restore the old order. Thus, serfdom and bonded labour were abolished.

4. What is the significance of 1848 for France and the rest of Europe? What did the liberals demand? (2011)

Ans. With many revolts, like revolts of the poor, unemployed workers and starving peasants during 1848 in Europe, the educated middle class of France also started a revolution for the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage.

In other parts of Europe, men and women of the Liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification.

They took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demand for the creation of a nation- state on parliamentary principles — a constitution, freedom of press and freedom of association.

The issue of extending political rights to women was most controversial subject matter within the liberal movement in which large number of women had participated actively.


Explain any three reasons for the nationalist upsurge in the 19th century Europe. (2011)

Ans. Reasons for the Nationalist upsurge in the 19th century Europe.

(i) Oppression of people under absolute rulers.

(ii) Liberal ideas spread by well-known philosophers and leaders.

(iii) The French Revolution inspired the people to fight for freedom. The slogan ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ became the clarion call for the common people.

(iv) With the outbreak of revolutionary wars, the French army and its soldiers began to carry the ideas of nationalism abroad.


Unification of Germany

1.  Describe the process of unification of Germany. (2015, 11, 10)

Answer:

(i) In the 1800s, nationalist feelings were strong in the hearts of the middle-class Germans.

(ii) During the Vienna Congress in 1815, Germany was identified as a loose confederation of 39 states.

(iii) They united in 1848 to create a nation-state out of the numerous German states.

(iv) Prussia soon became the leader of German unification movement.

(v) Chief Minister of Prussia Otto von Bismarck was the architect of the process with the support from the Prussian army and bureaucracy.

(vi) The unification process was completed after Prussia won wars with Austria, Denmark and France over a time period of seven years.

(vii) In January 1871, the Prussian King, William I, was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.

2.  Otto von Bismarck was the architect of ‘German Unification ‘. Explain. (2012)

Ans. Otto von Bismarck was the architect of Germany as he played an important role in the unification of the country with the help of army and tactful diplomacy. He is known for his policy of ‘Blood and Iron’.

(i) The revolution of the liberals led by middle-class Germans in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state. It failed in its goal.

(ii) After the failure of the revolution of 1848, Prussian Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck, with the help of the army and bureaucracy, carried out the task of unification.

(iii) Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.

(iv) On 18th January 1871, the Prussian King, Kaiser William I was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in the presence of important officials, army representatives and Otto von Bismarck.


Unification of Italy

1.  Describe the process of Unification of Italy. (2015, 14, 12)

Ans. Unification of Italy:

(i) During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house.

(ii) The unification process was led by three revolutionaries—Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Camillo de Cavour, and Giuseppe Garibaldi

(iii) During 1830, Mazzini decided to unite Italy. He had formed a secret society ‘Young Italy’ to achieve his goal.

(iv) After earlier failures in 1831 and 1848, King Victor Emmanuel II took to unify the Italian states through wars.

(v) Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.

(vi) After earlier failures in 1831 and 1848, King Victor Emmanuel II took to unify the Italian states through wars.

(vii) Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.

(viii) Under the leadership of Garibaldi armed volunteers marched into South Italy in 1860 and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers.

(ix) In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.

2.  Examine the conditions of Italy before unification. (2012)

Ans. Conditions of Italy before unification:

(i) The greatest problem in the unification of Italy was its fragmentation into several political units, each under a different authority.

(ii) Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multinational Habsburg Empire.

(iii) During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states.

(iv) Out of seven, only one Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house.

(v) The north was under Austrian Habsburgs.

(vi) The centre was ruled by the Pope.

(vii) Southern regions were under the Bourbon kings of Spain.

(viii) The Italian language had not acquired one common form. It still had many regional and local variations.

3.  Who was Cavour? Explain his contributions to the unification of Italy. (2011,12)

Ans. Cavour was the Chief Minister of Sardinia Piedmont. His contribution to the unification of Italy was:

(i) He was a good administrator.

(ii) He worked for the unification of Italy. through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour of Sardinia-piedmont.

(iii) He led the movement to unify the regions of Italy.

(iv) He was a tactful diplomat. He succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.

4.  Describe the role of Giuseppe Mazzini in the Unification of Italy. (2012)

Ans. Giuseppe Mazzini was a famous Italian revolutionary was born in 1807 in Genoa. He inspired nationalism among people through his ideology of a United Italian republic and founded different societies to organise like-minded people.

  • He was the part of a secret society called Carbonari.
  • In 1831, Mazzini was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
  • He founded two secret societies—Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne. Members of these societies were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and German states.
  • Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind.
  • Mazzini believed in the unification of the small kingdoms and principalities in Italy to form a republic.
  • Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republic frightened the conservatives.

Unification of Britain

1.  In Britain the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. Validate the statement with relevant arguments. (2016)

Ans. In Britain, the formation of the nation–state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. It was the result of a long-drawn-out process.

(i) The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones–such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. There was no British nation prior to the 18th century.

(ii) All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions.

(iii) Because of steady growth of the English nation in case of wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.

(iv) The Act of Union 1707 between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’. It meant that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland.

(v) The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state with England at its centre, came to be forged.

(vi) The growth of the British identity meant that Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.

(vii) The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.

(viii) The British imposed control over Ireland as well. The English favoured the Protestants of Ireland and helped them establish their dominance over a largely Catholic Ireland.

(ix) In 1801, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom after a failed Irish revolt.

(x) The symbols of new Britain were the English language, the British flag (Union Jack) and the British national anthem (God Save Our Nobel King).

2. How did Britain come into existence as a nation-state? Explain. (2019)

OR.  Describe the process of Unification of Britain. (2015)

Ans. Unification of Britain:

(i) Britain was not a nation state prior to 18th century. The primary identities were based on ethnicities such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.

(ii) The steady growth of power made the English nation extend its influence over the other nations and islands.

(iii) In 1688, England was established as a nation state. English parliament seized power from the monarchy.

(iv) In 1707, the United Kingdom of Great Britain formed with the Act of the Union between England and Scotland.

(v) England dominated Scotland and Ireland in all spheres. British parliament was dominated by English members.

(vi) Ireland was forcibly taken by the British after the failed revolution led by Wolfe and his United Irishmen (1798).

(vii) Thus, a new “British nation” was formed with the dominating English culture, its national anthem and British national Flag.

3.  With reference to Scotland and Ireland, explain how British Nationalism grew at the cost of other cultures. (2012)

Ans. A new “British nation” was formed at the cost of other cultures of Scotland and Ireland.

(i) Through the Act of Union (1707), England was able to impose its influence on Scotland.

(ii) The growth of the British identity meant that Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.

(iii) The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.

(iv) Ireland was also divided between Catholics and Protestants.

(v) Ireland was forcibly incorporated in the UK after the failed revolution led by Wolfe and his United Irishmen (1798).


Visualising the Nation

1.  How had the female figures become an allegory of the nation during nineteenth century in Europe? Analyse. (2016)

Ans. Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries found a way out by personifying a nation. They portrayed a country as a female figure.

(a) The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life.

(b) It gave an abstract idea of the nation a concrete form.

(c) The female figure became an allegory of the nation.

(d) In France she was named Marianne and in Germany she was named Germania.

During the French Revolution, artists used the formal allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic.

Another Answer:

Female figures became an allegory of the nation during the nineteenth century in Europe in the following ways:

  • Artists, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, often made efforts to represent a country as if it were a person. Female figures were chosen to express an abstract idea of a nation. These female figures, thus, became an allegory of the nation.
  • In France, the female figure was christened Marianne, which was characterised by liberty and the republic through the red cap, the tricolour and the cockade. Statues of Marianne stood in public squares to remind people of the national symbol of unity.
  • In Germany, the female figure – Germania – became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wore the crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stood for heroism

2. ‘While it is easy enough to represent a ruler through a portrait or a statue, how does one go about giving a face to a nation.” Examine this statement in context of European nationalism in five points. (2012)

Answer:

(i) Artists personified the nation — portrayed nation as a female figure.

(ii) Artist used the female allegory to portray ideas such as liberty, justice and the republic.

(iii) Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.

(iv) Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.

(v) Germania became the allegory of the German nation. She wears a crown of oak leaves, as in Germany oak stands for heroism.

3.  Name the female allegory who represents France. Describe her main characteristics. (2012)

Ans. Marianne was the female allegory who represented France. Her characteristics were drawn from:

(i) Those of liberty and republic.

(ii) These were the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade.

(iii) Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.

(iv) Her images were marked on coins and stamps of 1850.


Balkan Crisis – Nationalism Aligns with Imperialism

1. How did nationalism align with imperialism to become the cause of the First Word War? Explain.  (2020)

OR.  “Nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment by the last quarter of the nineteenth century in Europe.”  Analyse the statement with examples. (2016)

OR. “The idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of Nationalism in the first half of nineteenth century became a narrow creed with limited ends.”  Examine the statement. (2015)

Answer:

Sentiment of Nationalism in the first half of the 19th century aimed at building of nation states based on common heritage and identity but the same sentiment of nationalism became a narrow creed with limited ends by the last quarter of the nineteenth century in Europe.

Nationalism and imperialism encouraged each European nation to pursue its own interests and compete for power. Nationalism aligned with imperialism, led Europe to disaster in 1914.

(i) Towards the last quarter of the 19th century, nationalism could not retain its idealistic liberal-democratic sentiments of the first half of the century but became a narrow belief with inadequate ends.

(ii) Nationalist groups became increasingly intolerant, which led to war.

(iii) Major European powers manipulated the nationalist aspirations to further their own imperialist aims.

(iv) Source of nationalist tension in Europe was the area called Balkans.

(v) Idea of romantic nationalism in the Balkan together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.

(vi) One by one, European nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.

(vii) The Balkan people based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality to prove that they were once independent but were subjugated by a foreign power.

(viii) Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence. Hence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.

(viii) The entry and rivalry of big powers – Austro-Hungry, Russia, Britain, Germany – worsened the situation in the region and all this led to the First World War in 1914.

2. Highlight the reasons for the growth of nationalist tensions in the Balkan region before the First World War. (CBSE SQP, 2020-21)

OR. Describe the explosive conditions prevailed in Balkans after 1871 in Europe. (2018)

OR.  Briefly trace the geographical and ethnic variations of Balkan region. Why did this region become politically very explosive? (2014)

OR. What is meant by Balkan? Why did it turn into a perennial source of tension and proved the battlefield of the first World War? (2012)

Answer:

(i) The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.

(ii) The inhabitants of these regions were known as Slavs.

(iii) A large part of Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman empire while some other parts were under the control of Russia and Austria causing a complex problem.

(iv) The spread of the ideas of Romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made the region very explosive.

(v) The Balkan area became an area of intense conflict as different Slavic nationalities struggled for their independence. The Balkan people based their claim for independence or political rights on nationality and desired to win back their long lost freedom.

(vi) The Balkan region became a region of intense conflict over expansion of territory. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of others.

(vii) At the same time the Balkan region also became the source of big power rivalry among the European powers over trade, colonies and military might.

(viii) The big powers – Russia, Germany, England, and Austria-Hungary—were keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its own control over the area.

(ix) This led to the series of wars in the region and finally became the cause of the First World War.

3. How did the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire make Balkan region very explosive? Explain. (2014)

Answer:

  • The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive after 1871.
  • One by one, its European subject nationalities of the Ottoman empire, broke away from its control and declared independence. The Balkan people based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers.
  • Hence the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long-lost independence. This made the Balkans an area of intense conflict. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others.
  • Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry. During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might.
  • All this led to the First World War.

Topper’s Answer Year 2018

Topper’s Answers

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