Extra Important Questions of the Class 10 geography Chapter ‘Water Resources’: The questions have been selected from previous CBSE class 10 Board Exams. Answers are also given. Answers are written in CBSE standards to score full marks in exams.
Water Resources – Important Questions from Previous Years’ Board Exams
1. Name any one river valley project which has significantly contributed to the loss of forests. [CBSE 2014]
2. Write the major source of freshwater in India? [CBSE 2010]
3. How much percent of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as fresh water? [CBSE 2011]
4. What percentage of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as oceans? [CBSE 2012]
5. What are the causes of water scarcity? [CBSE 2013]
6. Which largest artificial lake was built in 11th century? [CBSE 2014]
7. On which river has the Hirakud Dam been constructed? [CBSE 2014]
8. On which river Bhakhra Nangal Dam has been constructed? [CBSE 2014, 2015]
9. Who proclaimed dams as the temples of modern India? [CBSE 2014]
10. Which river is known as the ‘River of Sorrow’? [CBSE 2015]
11. Name two social movements which were against the multipurpose projects. [CBSE 2015]
12. The Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is built on which river? [CBSE 2015]
13. On which river the Salal Dam is built? [CBSE 2015]
14. In which regions the release of water from dams during heavy rains aggravated the food situation in 2006? [CBSE 2015]
15. Which water is recharged by roof-top rainwater harvesting technique? [CBSE 2014]
16. In which region, people built ‘Guls’ or ‘Kuls’ for irrigation? [CBSE 2012]
17. Mention one state where canal irrigation has developed. [CBSE 2013]
18. In which state Bamboo Drip Irrigation is prevalent? [CBSE 2014]
19. On which river is the Nagarjun Sagar dam built? [All India 2010]
20. What is the traditional system of rainwater harvesting? [Foreign 2010]
21. Name the river on which Sardar Sarovar dam is built. [Delhi 2011]
22. Name the river on which Nagarjuna Sagar dam is constructed. [Delhi 2009]
23. Name the river on which Mettur dam has been built. [Delhi 2009]
24. What was the main purpose of launching multi-purpose projects in India after independence? [All India 2010]
25. Name two techniques of rooftop rainwater harvesting. [All India 2011]
26. What is the need of rainwater harvesting? [Delhi 2011]
27. Name any one river valley project which has significantly contributed to the loss of forests. (2014)
28. On which one of the following rivers Sardar Sarovar Dam is built? (2011)
(a) River Kaveri
(b) River Krishna
(c) River Narmada
(d) River Satluj
- Sardar Sarovar Dam.
- 25 percent.
- 96.5 percent.
- Rapid growth of population, uneven
distribution of water resources and
increase in demand of water.
- Bhopal lake.
- River Mahanadi.
- River Satluj.
- Jawaharlal Nehru.
- Damodar river.
- Narmada Bachao Andolan and Tehri Dam
- Maharashtra and Gujarats
- Ground water.
- Western Himalayas.
- The Nagarjun Sagar Dam is built on the Krishna.
- The traditional system of rainwater harvesting is to build underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water. This system is mainly practised in the arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan.
- Sardar Sarovar dam is built on the Narmada.
- The Nagarjun Sagar Dam is built on the river Krishna.
- Mettur dam has been built on the Kaveri.
- The main purpose of launching multipurpose projects after independence was that they would integrate development of agriculture with rapid industrialization.
- (a) Construction of tanks so as to store the rainwater
(b) Collection of excess rainwater in the dug well
- Rainwater harvesting is needed to provide it for agriculture, collect drinking water, irrigate the fields and to moisten the soil.
- Sardar Sarovar Dam
- (c) River Narmada
Q. How has Shillong solved the problem of acute shortage of water? [CBSE OD, 2019]
Q. How has Tamil Nadu solved the problem of acute shortage of water?
Ans. Shillong has been able to deal with the problem of acute shortage of water by setting up Bamboo drip irrigation systems and Roof top rain water harvesting. This helped Shillong meet its total water requirement of each household.
Tamil Nadu has been able to deal with the problem of acute shortage of water by adopting rooftop water harvesting techniques. This practice was made mandatory under the law for all houses across the state.
Q. ‘‘The dams that were constructed to control floods have triggered floods.” Analyse the statement. [CBSE 2019]
Ans. The dams, that have been constructed to support the economic development of the country, can be destructive at times. They may cause floods because:
- Sometimes, they are constructed without proper planning and sometimes low standard construction material is used. This inferior quality of construction material increases the chances of floods.
- Construction of these dams can make the area, in which they are constructed, ‘earthquake prone’, which may lead to landslides and the water to flow out of dams.
- Sometimes extremely large amounts of water needs to be released during large rain to save dams from breakage. These large releases of water sometimes cause flooding downstream.
Q. Analyse the merits of Multipurpose projects. [CBSE OD, 2019]
Ans. Merits of multipurpose projects are given below:
- Dams are built for generating hydroelectricity.
- Canals are made for irrigation purpose and can also be used for inland navigation.
- Water supply can be used for domestic and industrial purpose.
- Dams also attract Tourism and recreation
Q. ‘‘Water scarcity may be an outcome of large and growing population in India.” Analyse the statement. [CBSE Delhi, 2019]
(i) Very simple to understand that large population leads to greater demand for water for drinking and domestic purposes.
(ii) A large population also means more demand for more food. It leads to expansion f irrigated agriculture which affects ground water level during dry season agriculture.
(iii) Most of the Indian cities are facing the problem of water due to growing population. This happens because large amount of ground water is pumped out in densely populated colonies. This has drastically lowered the water table.
(iv) Large industries also make huge demand on water.
(v) Further industrial pollution often pollutes the water bodies which further aggravates the situation.
Q. Analyse the importance of ‘rainwater harvesting.’ [CBSE Delhi, 2019]
Ans. It is a technique of increasing the recharge of groundwater by collecting and storing rainwater by constructing structures, such as dug wells, percolation pits and check dams.
(i) In most cases, the harvested water is usually redirected to storage tanks, cistern or reservoirs. First and foremost, the collection offers a better and efficient utilization of energy resource. It is important because potable water is usually not renewable.
(ii) Harvesting allows the collection of large amounts of rainwater. Rainwater is usually free from harmful chemicals, which makes it ideal for irrigation purposes.
(iii) Another important advantage is that it reduces demand for potable water. It is important especially in areas with low water levels. Rainwater harvesting, thus, is considered as a very reliable way to conserve water.
Q. “Water harvesting system is an effective measure to reduce the problem of water scarcity.” Justify the statement. [AI 2019]
(i) A large amount of this precious water just drains away. The only way to save this water from wastage is by rain water harvesting.
(ii) Water harvesting means conserving water or making its optimum utilisation by reducing its wastage. Water saved or conserved makes it available for use to fight water scarcity.
(iii) Another important advantage is that it reduces demand for potable water. It is important especially in areas with low water levels. Rainwater harvesting, thus, is considered as a very reliable way to conserve water.
(iv) The different methods of rain water harvesting used in India have been as follows:
- (a) Guls or Kuls in the Western Himalayas
- (b) Rooftop rain water harvesting in Rajasthan associated with tankas .Khadins in Jaisalmer and Johads in other parts of Rajasthan were also popular.
- (c) Inundation channels in West Bengal
- (d) In Meghalaya which gets copious rain, rain water harvesting is commonly practiced.
Q. Analyse the impact of ‘water scarcity.’ [CBSE Delhi, 2019]
(i) Problem of Water Scarcity: Water scarcity is the lack of freshwater resources to meet water demand. It is affecting every continent and as per the World Economic Forum, it is one of the largest global risks in terms of potential impact over the next decade.
(ii) Water is one of the most important requirements for agriculture and livestock.
- Water is needed for irrigating the crops; thus, water scarcity immediately leads to loss of crops. The scarcity of water damages the already sown crops.
- Livestock is affected as the fodder (animal feed) production is also decreased manifolds due to water scarcity. The domestic farms need water for its proper maintenance. So, water scarcity is a threat to both these sectors.
(iii) Water scarcity directly affects human beings and animals.
- Absence of potable water for drinking and other purposes causes a lot of diseases and problems to human beings. This hinders their daily routines and they are unable to discharge their daily duties.
- Without access to clean water, there is no way one can avail proper sanitation facilities. Access to quality water is fundamental to better living standard and economic growth. Absence of that lowers the living standards of the country.
(iv) Natural landscapes suffer the most because of water scarcity as it contributes to desertification, loss of plants and death of wildlife.
Q. “Urbanisation has added to water scarcity.” Support the statement with arguments. [AI 2019]
(a) It is true that urbanization has aggravated water crisis in India. The urban centres support large populations which increases the water demand for personal uses.
(b) In the city housing societies or colonies have their own groundwater pumping arrangements to meet the water requirements. Thus, the water resources are over-exploited.
(c) The urban centres also have many large numbers of industries. These industries use a huge quantity of water and exert pressure on the existing freshwater resources. Quite often the industries also pollute the water resources.
Q. “Irrigation has changed the cropping pattern of many regions in India.” Analyse the statement. [CBSE OD, 2019]
Ans. Do yourself and write your answer in the comment section.
Q. How has the ever-increasing number of industries in India made worse position by exerting pressure on existing fresh water resources? Explain. [CBSE, 2018]
Ans. After independence, industries are increasing at a rapid pace and the ever-increasing number of industries has made matter worse by exerting pressure on existing fresh water resources. In India, over-exploitation and mismanagement of this resource by industries is aggravating the water stress day-by-day.
(i) Industries especially heavy industries use huge amount of fresh water, for example, Fresh water is required in thermal energy plants and steel industries on a large scale.
(ii) These industries often depend on hydroelectric projects which in turn needs additional water. This electricity is generated through damming the rivers upstream. So, the river almost dries in the lower stream areas.
(iii) The areas with sufficient water may also suffer from scarcity be due to bad quality of water or polluted water Industries dump the chemical waste in the river, lake, etc. which then consequently pollute the water dangerously. These also contaminate the groundwater through seepage of industrial wastes.
So, it is also true that the increasing number of industries exert pressure on existing fresh water resources.
Answer by Toppers
Q. “Water scarcity is on an increase day by day:” Justify the statement citing three reasons. (2017)
Q. Explain any four reasons responsible for water scarcity in India. (2015)
Q. Water is available in abundance in India. Even then scarcity of water is experienced in major parts of the country. Explain it with four examples.
Ans. The reasons for water scarcity in India are:
(i) Seasonal and annual variation in precipitation.
(ii) Unequal access to water resources.
(iii) Overexploitation of water resources or fresh water bodies.
(iv) Large and growing population resulting in greater demand for water resources and also for higher food grain productivity. This has led to overexploitation of water resources to expand irrigated areas especially for dry season agriculture adversely affecting the level of groundwater availability.
(v) Multiplying urban areas with dense population and modern life styles have created an ever-increasing demand for water and energy resources.
(vi) Pollution of water bodies due to discharge of industrial effluents, use of pesticides, insecticides and fertilizers in agriculture, make the river water hazardous for human consumption.
(i) The availability of water resources varies over space and time, mainly due to the variations in seasonal and annual precipitation.
(ii) Over-exploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.
(iii) Water scarcity may be an outcome of large and growing population and consequent greater demands for water. A large population means more water to produce more food. Hence, to facilitate higher food-grain production, water resources are being over exploited to expand irrigated areas for dry-season agriculture.
(iv) Most farmers have their own wells and tube wells in their farms for irrigation to increase their production. But it may lead to falling groundwater levels, adversely affecting water availability and food security of the people. Thus, in spite of abundant water there is water scarcity.
Q. How have intensive industrialization and urbanization posed a great pressure on existing freshwater resources in India. Explain. [CBSE 2015, 13, 12]
Ans. Post-independence India witnessed intensive industrialisation and urbanisation.
(i) Arrival of MNC’s: Apart from fresh water they required electricity which comes from hydroelectric power.
(ii) Multiplying urban centres with large and dense population and urban life styles have only added to water and energy requirements, which has further aggravated the problem.
(iii) Large-scale migration from rural to urban areas is causing over exploitation of water resources.
Q. Explain the working of underground tanks as a part of rooftop rainwater harvesting system practised in Rajasthan. [CBSE 2016, 15, 14, 12, 10]
Q. How were the underground tanks beneficial to the people of Rajasthan? Explain. [CBSE 2016, 12]
(i) In semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks for storing drinking water. They are extremely reliable source of drinking water when other sources dry up. Rain water is considered the purest form of natural water.
(ii) The tanks can be as large as big rooms and were part of the well-developed roof-top rainwater harvesting systems.
(iv) The tanks were built inside the main house or the courtyard giving cooling effect to the rooms in the summer.
(v) Those tanks were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses by a pipe.
(vi) Rain falling on these rooftops would travel down the pipe and get stored in these underground tanks.
(vii) Usually, first rain water is not collected as it cleans the rooftop and the pipe.
Q. “In recent years multipurpose projects and large dams have come under scrutiny and opposition”. Explain why? (2016)
Ans. The various reasons why multipurpose projects and large dams have come under scrutiny and opposition is because of the following reasons.
They affect natural flow of running water:
(i) Hence, it causes excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir.
(ii) It results in rockier stream beds.
(iii) They also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate, especially for breeding.
Affect natural vegetation and soil:
(i) The reservoirs that are created on the floodplains also submerge the existing vegetation and soil leading to its decomposition over a period of time.
(ii) The flood plains are deprived of silt, a natural fertiliser, further adding on to the problem of land degradation.
(i) The dams create conflicts between people wanting different uses and benefits from the same water resources.
(ii) Inter-state water disputes are also becoming common with regard to sharing the costs and benefits of the multi-purpose project.
Displacement of people:
(i) They result in the large-scale displacement of local communities.
(ii) Local people often had to give up their land, livelihood for the project.
(iii) This leads to widening of the social gap.
(iv) The local people are not benefiting from such projects.
Cause of many social movements: They have been a cause of many new social movements like the ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’ and the ‘Tehri Dam Andolan’ etc.
Failure to control flood:
(i) The dams that were constructed to control floods have often triggered floods due to sedimentation in the reservoir and at the time of excessive rainfall.
(ii) It was also observed that the multi-purpose projects induced earthquakes, caused waterborne diseases.
Change in cropping pattern:
(i) Availability of irrigation has also changed the cropping pattern.
(ii) Farmers have shifted to water intensive and commercial crops.
(iii) This has great ecological consequences like salinisation of the soil.
(iv) It has increased the social gap between the richer landowners and the landless poor.
Q. Describe the working (procedure) of the Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting being practised in India. [Delhi 2016]
(i) Rooftop rainwater is collected using a PVC pipe.
(ii) Collected water is filtered using sand and bricks.
(iii) Underground pipe is used to take the water to the tank for immediate usage.
(iv) Excess water from the tank is taken to the well.
(v) Water from the well recharges the underground water.
Q. Why is roof top water harvesting important in Rajasthan? Explain. (2014)
Ans. Roof top water harvesting is important in Rajasthan because:
(i) It provides a good source of drinking water.
(ii) The rainwater can be stored in the tanks till the next rainfall, making it an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up, particularly in the summers.
(iii) Rainwater, or palar pani, as commonly referred to in these parts, is considered the purest form of natural water.
(iv) Many houses construct underground rooms adjoining the ‘tanks’ to beat the summer heat as it keeps the room cool.
(v) Some houses still maintain the tanks since they do not like the taste of tap water.
Q. What is a multipurpose river valley project? Mention any four objectives of it. [CBSE 2016]
Q. Mention any four main objectives of multipurpose river valley projects. Name any two Multipurpose Project of India. (2015)
Ans. A project where many uses of the impounded water are integrated with one another is known as multipurpose project.
Advantages: It is built for irrigation, power generation, water supply, flood control, recreation, etc.
Name of two multipurpose river valley projects
(a) Bhakra Nangal project
(b) Sardar Sarovar project
Q. List any three advantages and three disadvantages of multipurpose river project. [2014, 13, 12]
Ans. Some advantages and disadvantages of multipurpose river project are given below:
(i) These are an important source of power generation.
(ii) They provide us pollution free and economical energy which is the backbone of industry and agriculture.
(iii) These projects control the floods because water can be stored in them. These projects have converted many, rivers of sorrows into rivers of boon.
(iv) These projects are the main source of irrigation and also help in conserving soil.
(i) Due to the construction of dams, there are no adequate floods in the river. Because of this, the soil of the downstream regions do not get nutrient rich silt.
(ii) Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate for spawning.
(iii) It results in displacement of local communities. The Local people often have to give up their land and livelihood and their meagre access and control over resources.
Q. What is Bamboo Drip Irrigation? Mention any two features of it. [2015, 12]
(i) Bamboo Drip Irrigation system is a 200-year-old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipe and transporting water from higher to lower regions through gravity.
(a) 18-20 litres of water enters the bamboo pipe system, get transported over hundreds of meters and finally reduces to 20-80 drops per minute at the site of the plant.
(b) The flow of water into the pipes is controlled by manipulating the pipe positions.
Q. Why did Jawaharlal Nehru proclaim dams as the ‘temples of modern India’? Explain any three reasons. [CBSE 2014]
Ans. Jawaharlal Nehru proclaimed the dams as the “temples of modern India” because:
(i) They eliminate or reduce flooding
(ii) Provide water for agriculture.
(iii) Provide water for human and industrial consumption.
(iv) Provide hydroelectricity for houses and industries.
Q. Describe any four traditional methods of rainwater harvesting adopted in different parts of India. [CBSE 2014, 2015, 2016, 15, 14, 12, 11]
(i) In hilly and mountainous regions, people build diversion channels like ‘gul’ or ‘kul’ in Western Himalaya for agriculture.
(ii) Roof-top rainwater harvesting was commonly practised to store drinking water particularly in Rajasthan.
(iii) In West Bengal, people develop inundation channels to irrigate their fields.
(iv) In semi-arid regions agricultural fields are converted into rainfed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moist the soil.
Methods of rainwater harvesting used in India are:
(i) Guls and Kuls: People built guls and kuls in hilly and mountainous regions to divert water. These are simple channels. They are mainly used in the Western Himalayas.
(ii) Roof top rainwater harvesting: Commonly practised to store drinking water in Rajasthan. In Tamil Nadu there are legal provisions for it.
(iii) Inundation Channels: These channels developed in the flood plains of Bengal to irrigate fields.
(iv) Khadins and Johads: In arid and semi-arid regions, some agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures. These structures are found in Rajasthan.
(v) Tankas: The tankas were built inside the main house or the courtyard. They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground ‘tankas’. The first spell of rain was usually not collected as this would clean the roofs and the pipes. The rainwater from the subsequent showers was then collected. The rainwater can be stored in the tankas.
(vi) Bamboo Drip Irrigation system: It is a 200-year-old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipe and transporting water from higher to lower regions through gravity.
Q. Highlight any three hydraulic structures as part of water management programmes initiated in ancient India along with the period when they were built. (2011)
Answer: Sophisticated hydraulic structures like dams built of stone rubble, reservoirs or lakes, embankments and canals for irrigation were built in various regions of the country.
(i) A sophisticated water harvesting system channelling the flood water of river Ganga was built at Sringaverapura near Allahabad in the 15th century BC.
(ii) Nagarjunakonda in Andhra Pradesh, Bennur in Karnataka, Kolhapur in Maharashtra and Kalinga in Odisha have evidences of irrigation structures.
(iii) In the 11th century, Bhopal Lake, one of the largest artificial lakes of its time was built.
(iv) The tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi was constructed by Iltutmish in the 14th century to supply water to the Siri Fort Area.
Q. Why is ground water a highly overused resource? [CBSE 2011]
Ans. Groundwater is a highly overused resource because of the following reasons:
(i) Due to large and growing population and consequent greater demands for water and unequal access to it.
(ii) To facilitate higher food grain production for large population, water resources are being over exploited to expand irrigated areas and dry season agriculture.
(iii) In the housing societies or colonies in the cities, there is an arrangement of ground water pumping devices to meet water needs. Often this is over exploited.
Q. Why are different water harvesting systems considered a viable alternative both socioeconomically and environmentally in a country like India? (2011)
Ans. Keeping in view the disadvantages and rising resistance against the multipurpose projects, water harvesting system is considered a viable alternative both socio-economically and environmentally.
(i) In ancient India also along with the sophisticated hydraulic structures, there existed an extraordinary tradition of various water harvesting systems.
(ii) People adopted different techniques in different areas. In hilly regions people-built diversion channels like the ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’ for agriculture.
(iii) Roof-top rainwater harvesting was commonly practised to store drinking water, particularly in Rajasthan.
(iv) In the flood plains of Bengal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate their fields. Khadins, Johads and Tanks are the forms of rainwater harvesting practised in Rajasthan.