Working of The Institutions Class 9 Political Science Extra Questions: democracy is not just about people electing their rulers. In a democracy the rulers have to follow some rules and procedures. They had to work with and within institutions. This chapter ‘working of the institutions’ is about the working of such institutions in our democracy. The three institutions that play a key role in major decisions are – legislature, executive and judiciary. All these institutions together carry on the work of government.
Here are given some extra questions based on the chapter ‘working of the institutions’ class 9. These questions will help understand the various topics given in the chapter.
Extra Questions: Chapter ‘Working of The Institutions’ CBSE Class 9 Political Science
Q.1. What is an Office Memorandum?
An office Memorandum is a letter or circular for internal communication to exchange information among respective departments of government, an organisation or business enterprises.
An office memorandum as a reference number and it is signed by an authority deputed for that purpose.
Q.2. Who are the major functionaries of government?
The President: The head of the state and the highest form of authority in India.
The Prime Minister: The head of the government and takes most of the decisions in Cabinet meetings. The promised exercises or governmental powers.
Parliament: it has two houses namely the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The promised to must enjoy the support of majority of Lok Sabha members to remain in power.
Q.3. Why do we need political institutions?
Institutions are part of system of arrangements and perform different tasks assigned to them. A government also works through a system of arrangements made through the constitution. Some of the functions are given below.
- The government is responsible for ensuring security to the citizens and providing education and health facilities to all.
- It collects access and spends money on a new station, defence and developmental programs.
- It formulates and implements several welfare schemes.
So, to attend to all these functions and tasks, we need an institutional arrangement.
Q.4. Why the institutional system appears to be complex and frustrating?
Institutions involve meetings, committees and routines. Procedures and rules need to be followed before arriving any final decision and the institutional system involves many steps passing through different institutions causing delay and complications.
Q.5. How the system of institutional arrangements is useful in maintaining the spirit of the democracy.
Spirit of the democracy lies in the maximum and wider participation and consultation of people in decision making process. The political institutions do the same. For example- Parliament provides the biggest platform of debates and discussions by the representatives of the people.
The institutions cause delay in taking even a good decision but at the same type check the rush in taking any haste but bad decision.
Q.6. What is the significance of parliament in a democracy?
- Parliament in the final law-making authority in any democratic country. It has the power to change the existing laws, abolish them or make new laws.
- Parliament exercises control over those who run the government. No decision can be taken without the support of the Parliament.
- Parliament also controls the money matters.
- Parliament is the highest form of discussion and debate on public issues and national policy in any country. It can seek information on any matter from the government.
Q.7. Explain the composition of the Parliament of India.
The Parliament of India consist of three institutions namely the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha and the President of India. The Pres is not the member of any of these houses but the signature of Pres is necessary to make any law.
Q.8. How is the Lok Sabha more important than the Rajya Sabha?
The following points explain is how the Lok Sabha is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha which is the bigger house of the two.
- During the joint session of Parliament, the views of the Lok Sabha are more likely to prevail as members of the Lok Sabha more in numbers.
- The Lok Sabha has more powers on money matters. Once the Lok Sabha passes a law concerning the money matters, the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it though it can cause a delay of 14 days or suggest changes in each. The Lok Sabha is not bound to follow the suggestions.
- The Lok Sabha controls the Council of ministers. It is the floor where the government proves its majority to remain in power. The Prime Minister and the other ministers have to quit in case a no-confidence motion is passed against the Council of ministers.
Q.8. Distinguish between the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha
|S.No.||Difference||Lok Sabha||Rajya Sabha|
|1.||Called as||House of People||Council of States|
|2.||Composition||MPs directly elected by voters of India||MPs indirectly elected by the elected representative of the Assemblies of States and Union Territories|
|3.||Term||5 years, but it can be dissolved earlier by passing no-confidence motion||It is a permanent body.|
|4.||Heads of the houses||Speaker||Vice President of India as the Chairman of the house|
|5.||Age qualification||25 years||30 years|
|6.||Strength of the house?||Current maximum strength is 545 members. (maximum strength can be increased up to is 552)||Currently 245 members (can be increased up to maximum 250 members)|
|7.||Functions of the house?||more powerful in terms of Money Bills and having more members during joint session||Rajya Sabha has special powers to protect the states’ rights against the Union.|
Q.9. What does the Executive mean in the Indian governmental structure?
- The executive is the branch of government responsible for execution of laws and policies made by the parliament or decisions taken by the cabinet.
- It includes the President, other ministers and the whole mass of administrators and the civil servants.
- The executive comprises two parts – the Political Executive and the Permanent Executive.
Q.9. Differentiate between Political Executive and the Permanent Executive.
|S.No.||Political Executive||Permanent Executive|
|1||elected by the people||not elected but appointed through competitive exams|
|2||have a specific tenure||remain in office for loner time even if the ruling party changes|
|3||include the prime Minister, Cabinet ministers and the Council of Misters||include civil services such as IAS, IPS, IFS etc|
|4||answerable to the people for their actions||not answerable to the people|
|5||take all the final decagons and are more powerful||do not take decisions but work under the political executive and assist in in day-to-day administration|
|6||usually not very educated and may lack expertise in their field yet they are more powerful than Permanent Executive.||usually more educated and are expert in their field yet they are less powerful than Political Executive.|
Q.10. How is the Prime Minister of India appointed?
- The president appoints the Prime Minister who is the leader of the party or the coalition that commands the majority in the Lok Sabha.
- The Prime Minister must be a member of either Rajya Sabha or Lok Sabha. If is not a member at the time of appointment then he must get elected to any one of the houses of Parliament within six months of appointment as Prime Minister.
- He continues in power so long as he remains the leader of the majority party or coalition and his majority in the Lok Sabha.
- He forms the Council of ministers and the Cabinet.
Q.11. How powerful is the Prime Minister of India?
- The Prime Minister is the head of the government
- He summons and presides over the meetings of the Cabinet.
- He chooses ministers and distributes and redistribute portfolios among them. All ministers work under his leadership.
- He acts as an advisor to the Pres over the appointment of ministers, Judges of the Supreme Court and high Courts.
- He leads the government in the Lok Sabha.
- He makes important domestic and foreign policies.
- When the Prime Minister quits, the entire ministry quits.
- He is also the chairman of the need for a NITI Ayog.
Q.12. Write any three constraints on the power of the Prime Minister of coalition government.
(a) He cannot take decisions as his own likes.
(b) He has to accommodate different groups and factions and his party as well as the coalition partners.
(c) He also has to heed to the views and positions of the coalition partners and other parties on whose support the survival of the government depends.
Example- VP Singh government was a coalition government formed in Dec, 1989. It fell in Nov, 1990 as it lost majority in the Lok Sabha because one coalition partner BJP withdrawing support from the government.
Q.12. Explain the three categories of the Council of Ministers.
(a) Cabinet Ministers: Top level ministers heading important ministries are part of the cabinet. cabinet is a decision-making body of the executive.
(b) Ministers of State with independent charges: They are in charge of small ministries. They take part in Cabinet meetings only when they are invited.
(c) Minsters of State: These ministers are attached to and Cabinet Ministers to assist them.
Q.13. How is the President of India Elected?
The Pres of India is elected indirectly by an electoral college comprising the MPs and the MLAs. For a candidate to be elected as the Pres of India he or she must obtain the majority of votes.
Q.14. State the powers of the President of India.
The President of India is the head of the state. He is the nominal head as he has to act according to the advice of the Council of ministers.
- All government activities in the name of the president.
- He supervises the overall functioning of all the political institutions in the country.
- All the laws and major policy decisions of the government are taken in his name.
- The president made or major appointments like the appointment of the Chief Justice of India, governors of the states, the election Commissioners, ambassadors to other countries etc.
- all international treaties and agreements are made in the name of the President.
- He is the supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of India
Q.15. How can you say that the judiciary in India is the most powerful?
- The Judiciary in India is independent as it is not under the control of the legislature or the executive.
- The Supreme Court and the High Courts have the power to interpret the Constitution of the country.
- The powers of the judicial review can determine the validity or declare invalid any law and action of legislature or any of the executive in the country when it is challenge before the courts.
- According to the ruling of the Supreme Court, the core of the basic principles of the Constitution cannot be changed by the Parliament.
- The Judiciary acts as a guardian of the fundamental rights of the citizens.
- The courts intervene or prevent the misuse of the government’s powers to make decisions. They check the malpractices on the part of the public officials