CBSE Class 9 Economics Chapter ‘Poverty as a Challenge’: The chapter explains different concepts like- poverty line, social exclusion and vulnerability of the poor, the regional disparity in poverty ratio and the global regional differences, the causes of poverty etc. Here you will find different questions based on the subject matter of the chapter ‘ Poverty as a Challenge’.
Poverty as a Challenge: NCERT Class 9 Economics Extra Question
Q.1. Define poverty.
Poverty may be defined as a situation in which a person is unable to secure even his basic requirements or we can say poverty is lack of income to acquire minimum necessities of life like food, clothing, housing, education and health.
Q.2. What are the main dimensions of poverty?
- Poverty refers to hunger, lack of shelter and proper clothing.
- Parents are unable to send their children to school because of low income.
- The poor people cannot afford medical treatment in case of poor health.
- Malnutrition is a problem the poor people who suffer from.
- The poor people generally have larger family size.
- Unemployment or underemployment is a problem as regular jobs are not available for the poor.
- Child labour is seen among the poor people because of poverty.
- Poor people do not have access to clean drinking water and sanitation facilities.
- Landlessness is also seen among the poor.
- Poor people live with a sense of helplessness and are ill treated at almost every place.
- They face social exclusion and are vulnerable to bad situations.
Q.3. What are the common indicators of poverty?
- Level of income
- Level of consumption
- Illiteracy level
- poor immune system due to malnutrition
- lack of job opportunities
- lack of safe drinking water
- sanitation and health care facilities
Q.5. What are two new indicators to analyse poverty?
- Social exclusion
Social Exclusion: it means that you are have to live only in poor surroundings with other poor people. Their locality is generally separated and excluded from mixing with the locality in which better of people live.
Poor people are denied the facilities, benefits and opportunities that better-off people enjoy.
Q.7. What is vulnerability?
Vulnerability: it refers to a situation in which certain communities or individuals (like a widow or a handicapped person) have greater possibility to remain poor in the coming years. The vulnerable communities do not easily find an alternative living in terms of assets, education, health and job opportunities.
These communities also face greater risks at the time of natural calamities (such as earthquakes, floods, tsunami, terrorism etc.)
in short, we can say that vulnerability is the greater probability of poor being more adversely affected than other people in bad times.
Q.8. What is poverty line?
- Poverty line is an imaginary line based on threshold or cut off-point which divides the population as poor and non-poor. It refers to that purchasing power by which people can satisfy and fulfil their basic minimum needs.
- Poverty is estimated on poverty line which is different in different countries.
- In India the concept of poverty line is based on consumption or intake of calories and the required monitory expenditure on food items to get those calories.
- In India, average per day calorie requirements is estimated as 2400 per person in rural area and 2100 per person in urban area.
- For the year 2010-11, the poverty line was estimated as Rs 816 per month in rural area to purchase 2400 calories and Rs 1000 per month for people in urban area.
- The poverty line is estimated periodically (normally every five years) by conducting sample surveys. These surveys are carried out by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO).
Q.9. What are the major causes of poverty in India?
Colonial Rule: The exploitative policies of the colonial rule destroyed India’s handicraft industries and a large number of weavers and craftsmen became unemployed.
Low Growth Rate: until the beginning of 1980s India suffered from low growth rate. It resulted in low job creations and low level of income.
Unemployment; Green Revolution created many job opportunities but it was limited to only few states. The Industrial sector increased but the seekers were more than the jobs created.
Population Growth: Rising population stresses upon resources of a country. It increases the problem of both underemployment as well as unemployment. It reduces the per capita income.
Income inequalities: Unequal distribution of land and other resources is also a major reason of poverty. land resources are limited also. Government’s initiatives suffered from faulty implementations of policies to reduce poverty.
Socio-cultural and economic factors: People, including the very poor, spend a lot of money to fulfil their social obligations and observe religious ceremonies. Small farmers borrow money to buy agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers etc. Their inability to repay indulges them into indebtedness which is both the cause and effect of poverty.
Q.10. What are the different measures initiated for removal of poverty?
The government of India started some targeted anti-poverty programmes. Some of them are listed below:
- Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) 2005
- Prime Minister Rozgar Yojna (PMRY) 1993
- Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) 1995
- Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna (SGSY) 1999
- Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna (PMGY) 2000
- Antodaya Anna Yojna (AAY) 2000
Q.11. What are the main features of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) 2005?
(a) The act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural households to ensure them the livelihood security.
(b) 1/3rd of the proposed jobs has been reserved for women.
(c) Under the scheme if an applicant is not provided employment within 15 days, he/she will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.
(d) It also aimed at sustainable development to address the cause of draught, deforestation and soil erosion.
(e) In 2021, the national wage rate under MGNREGA is Rs 202 per person per day for unskilled workers.