The Story of Village Palampur: CBSE Class 9 Economics Solutions

The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Solutions: The chapter seeks to explain different economic concepts related to the production like factors of production- land, capital, labour and enterprise.

Let’s Discuss Pg-3

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Q. 1. The following table 1.1 shows the land under cultivation in India in units of million hectares. Plot this on the graph, provided. What does the graph show? Discuss in the class.

Table 1.1: Cultivated area over the years

Q. 2. Is it important to increase the area under irrigation? Why?

Answer

Yes, it is important to increase the area under irrigation because the increase in area under irrigation will be helpful for more and more production which will help to feed the rising population of India.

Q. 3. You have read about the crops grown in Palampur. Fill the following table based on information on the crops grown in your region.

Answer

Let’s Discuss Pg-5

Q. 1. What is the difference between multiple cropping and modern farming methods?

Answer: Difference between multiple cropping and modern farming methods:

Q. 2. The following table shows the production of wheat and pulses in India after the Green Revolution in units of million tonnes. Was the Green Revolution equally successful for both the crops? Discuss.

Answer

For both the crops, Green Revolution was not equally successful. We can look at the graph and analyse that in 1965-66, the production of both crops was 10 million tonnes, but after a long gap of 35 years in 2000-01, production of pulses raised to 11 million tonnes and the other crop wheat’s production raised to 70 million tonnes. So, it can be said that Green revolution has seen more success in the production of wheat.

Q. 3. What is the working capital required by the farmer using modern farming methods?

Answer

HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, diesel, insecticides and pesticides are required working capital by the farmer using modern farming methods.

Q. 4. Modern farming methods require the farmer to start with more cash than before. Why?

Answer

The working capital is more in case of modern farming because one needs to employ costly farming techniques and the costs of the modern fertilizers, other chemicals and seeds are also higher than the conventional equipment.

Q. 3. You have read about the crops grown in Palampur. Fill the following table based on information on the crops grown in your region.

Answer

Let’s Discuss Pg-5

Q. 1. What is the difference between multiple cropping and modern farming methods?

Answer

Q. 2. The following table shows the production of wheat and pulses in India after the Green Revolution in units of million tonnes. Plot this on a graph. Was the Green Revolution equally successful for both the crops? Discuss.

Answer

For both crops, Green Revolution was not equally successful. We can look at the graph and analyse that in 1965-66, the production of both crops was 10 million tonnes, but after a long gap of 35 years in 2000-01, production of pulses raised to 11 million tonnes and the other crop wheat’s production raised to 70 million tonnes. So it can be said that Green revolution has seen more success in the production of wheat.

Q. 3. What is the working capital required by the farmer using modern farming methods?

Answer

HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, diesel, insecticides and pesticides are required working capital by the farmer using modern farming methods.

Q. 4. Modern farming methods require the farmer to start with more cash than before. Why?

Answer

The working capital is more in case of modern farming because one needs to employ costly farming techniques and the costs of the modern fertilizers, other chemicals and seeds are also higher than the conventional equipment.

Let’s Discuss Pg-7

Q. 1. In the picture 1.5 given below, can you shade the land cultivated by the small farmers?

Answer

We all know that land is very important for farming. But the sad truth is that not all the people engaged in agriculture have sufficient land for cultivation. In Palampur village about one third of the 450 families are landless, i.e. 150 families, most of them Dalits, have no land for cultivation. Remaining families who own land, 240 families cultivate small plots of land less than 2 hectares in size. This small plot doesn’t bring sufficient income to the farmer family. So, when we look at the picture, it can be seen that around 50 families cultivate on the land which is less than 2 hectares in size.

Q. 2. Why do so many families of farmers cultivate such small plots of land?

Answer

So many families cultivate such small plots of land because of the division and sub-division of the same land. Existing land is divided among family members continuously and as a result each member of the family gets smaller plot of the land.

Q. 3. The distribution of farmers in India and the amount of land they cultivate is given in the following graph. Discuss in the class-room.

Answer

On looking at pie chart, we can observe that in India there are 15 % farmers who have farms less than 2 hectares, these farmers cultivate 55.4% of total cultivated area. On the other side 85% of the total farmers have farms of more than 2 hectares and they cultivate only 44.6% of total cultivated area.

Q. 4. Would you agree that the distribution of cultivated land is unequal in Palampur? Do you find a similar situation for India? Explain.

Answer

Yes, we do agree that the distribution is unequal of cultivated lands in Palampur. In Palampur 240 families cultivate small plots of land which is less than 2 hectares in size and on the side, there are 60 families who cultivate more than 2 hectares of land. There are few farmers who have land extending over 10 hectares or more. The number of the big farmers is very less while their lands are about half of the total available. This disparity is in accordance with the trends shown at the national level.

Q. 5. Identify the work being done on the field in the pictures (given below) and arrange them in a proper sequence.

  1. Cutting of crops
  2. Spraying of insecticides
  3. Cultivation by traditional method
  4. Ploughing the field by bullock.
  5. Sowing
  6. Cultivation by modern method.

Answer

Arranging the work being done on the field:

  1. Traditional method of cultivation.
  2. Modern method of cultivation.
  3. Field ploughing with the help of bullocks.
  4. Sowing
  5. Spraying of chemical fertilizers and insecticides.
  6. Harvesting.

Let’s Discuss Pg-9

Q. 1. Why are farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali poor?

Answer

Dala and Ramkali are poor farm labourers because, they don’t own any piece of land for farming, and just work on daily wages. Also, they get far less wages than the minimum daily wages decided by the government. The government has decided the minimum wages for a farm labourer Rs. 60 per day, but they only get Rs. 35-40. People tend to work for lower wages to earn their livelihood, which makes the competition heavy for work among farm labourers.

Q. 2. Gosaipur and Majauli are two villages in north Bihar. Out of a total of 850 households in the two villages, there are more than 250 men, who are employed in rural Punjab and Haryana or in Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Hyderabad or Nagpur. Such migration is common in most villages across India. Why do people migrate? Can you describe (based on your imagination) the work that the migrants of Gosaipur and Majauli might do at the place of destination.

Answer

People tend to shift to cities from villages because of lack of work in the rural areas. Urban areas have greater employment opportunities than the villages. Most of the migrants are landless laborers or small farmers who need to constantly search for work when they do not get work in the agricultural sector.

2. (i) Those men who are employed in rural area might be working as household servants in the house od big Zamindaars.

(ii) They might be working as farm labourers.

(iii) In Delhi and other big cities they may be:

Answer

  • They might be working as farm labourers.
  • In Delhi and other big cities, they may be:
    • Working in small factories.
    • Working in hotels, grocery stores or garment stores etc.
    • Rickshaw pulling.
    • Helping the plumbers, electricians etc.

Let’s Discuss Pg-11

Q. 1. Let us take three farmers. Each has grown wheat on his field, though the production is different (see Column 2). The consumption of wheat by each farmer family is the same (Column 3). The whole of surplus of wheat this year is used as capital for next year’s production. Also suppose production is twice the capital used in production.

Complete the tables.

Answer

Farmer 1

Farmer 2

Farmer 3

Answer

Q. 2. Compare the production of wheat by the three farmers over 3 years.

Answer

On comparing the production of wheat by the three farmers over 3 years, we observe that:

  • The continuous increase in all the three years in the production of wheat of the farmer-1.
  • The production of wheat of farmer-2 has been constant in three years. It neither increased nor decreased.
  • The continuous decrease in the all the three years in the production of farmer-3.

Q. 3. What happens to farmer-3 in year 3? Can he continue production? What will he have to do to continue production?

Answer:

(i) In the 3rd year, farmer 3 could not produce wheat anymore in accordance with the trends of the three years.

(ii) Yes, production can be continued by him but it would require additional capital input from the farmer’s end.

(iii) The farmer will have to arrange for working capital by borrowing money from the moneylender, banks or some other source, if he wishes to continue production.

Let’s Discuss Pg-12

Q. 1. Read the following descriptions and answer the questions that follow:

Mishrilal has purchased a mechanical sugarcane crushing machine run on electricity and has set it up on his field. Sugarcane crushing was earlier done with the help of bullocks but people prefer to do it by machines these days. Mishrilal also buys sugarcane from other farmers and processes it into jaggery. The jaggery is then sold to traders at Shahpur. In the process, Mishrilal makes a small profit.

(i) What capital did Mishrilal need to set up his jaggery manufacturing unit

(ii) Who provides the labour in this case?

(iii) Can you guess why Mishrilal is unable to increase his profit?

(iv) Could you think of any reasons when he might face a loss?

(v) Why does Mishrilal sell his jaggery to traders in Shahpur and not in his village?

Answer

(i) Sugarcane crushing machine is needed by Mishrilal to set up his jaggery manufacturing unit.

(ii) His family members and he himself provides the labour in this case.

(iii) Because of the limited production of sugarcane in his village, he is unable to raise his profit.

(iv) He might face losses when the price of jaggery falls.

(v) Mishrilal sells his jaggery to traders in Shahpur and not in his village because he can earn more in Shahpur comparatively because of the big market of jaggery over there.

Q. 2. Read the following descriptions and answer the questions that follow:

Kareem has opened a computer class centre in the village. In recent years, a large number of students have been attending college in Shahpur town. Kareem found that a number of students from the village are also attending computer classes in the town. There were two women in the village having a degree in computer applications. He decided to employ them. He bought computers and set up the classes in the front room of their house overlooking the market. High class students have started attending them in good numbers.

(i) In what ways is Kareem’s capital and labour different from Mishrilal’s?

(ii) Why didn’t someone start a computer centre earlier? Discuss the possible reasons.

Answer

(i) Kareem’s capital is computer which is fixed capital when on the other side Mishrilal’s capital is sugarcane crushing machine which is his fixed capital. Kareem has hired two women as labourer where Mishrilal’s labour is his own family members, he didn’t need to hire any labour, and he is self-employed.

(ii) Someone didn’t start a computer centre earlier because of the lack of education and electricity facilities. The other possible reasons could be non-availability of persons of having a degree especially in computer education, less students etc.

Let’s Discuss Pg-13

Q. 3. Read the following descriptions and answer the questions that follow:

Kishora is a farm labourer. Like other such labourers, Kishora found it difficult to meet his family’s needs from the wages that he received. A few years back, Kishora took a loan from the bank. This was under a government programme which was giving cheap loans to poor landless households. Kishora bought a buffalo with this money. He now sells the buffalo’s milk. Further he has attached a wooden cart to his buffalo and uses it to transport various items. Once a week he goes to the river Ganga to bring back clay for the potter. Or sometimes he goes to Shahpur with a load of jaggery or other commodities. Every month he gets some work in transport. As a result, Kishora is able to earn more than what he used to do some years back.

  1. What is Kishora’s fixed capital?
  2. What do you think would be his working capital?
  3. In how many production activities is Kishora involved?
  4. Would you say that Kishora has benefited from better roads in Palampur?

Answer

  1. Buffalo and wooden cart is Kishora’s fixed capital.
  2. Money that is being spent on the maintenance of the bullock and the cart is his working capital.
  3. Kishora’s involvement is now in three production activities.
  4. Yes, Kishora has benefitted from better roads because of better roads in Palampur; he is able to transport different items which will increase his income.

Textbook Excercises


Answer

a. LOCATION: Bulandshahar district, Western Uttar Pradesh
b. TOTAL AREA OF THE VILLAGE: 226 hectares
c. LAND USE (in hectares):

Cultivated Land Land not available for cultivation
(Area covering dwellings, roads, ponds, grazing ground)
Irrigated Unirrigated
200 hectares 26 hectares

d. FACILITIES:

Educational2 primary schools and 1 high school
Medical1 primary health centre and 1 private dispensary
MarketRaiganj and Shahpur
Electricity SupplyMost of the houses have electric connections. Electricity powers all the tube wells in the fields and is used in various types of small businesses.
CommunicationWell-connected with neighbouring villages and towns. 3 kms from Raiganj. All-weather road connects it to Raiganj and further on to Shahpur. Many kinds of transport like bullock carts, tongas, bogeys, motorcycles, jeeps, tractors and trucks are present.
Nearest TownShahpur

2. Modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry. Do you agree?

Answer

Modern farming methods involve the use of high-yielding variety seeds. These seeds require a combination of chemical fertilisers and pesticides, agricultural implements like tractors, and proper irrigation facilities like electric tube wells to produce the best results. All these elements are manufactured in industries. Hence, it would be right to say that modern farming methods make use of a greater number of industrial outputs as compared to traditional farming methods.

3. How did the spread of electricity help farmers in Palampur?

Answer
The spread of electricity has helped the farmers of Palampur village in the following ways:

  • Most of the houses have electric connections.
  • Electricity is used to run tube wells in the fields.
  • Electricity is used in various types of small business.

4. Is it important to increase the area under irrigation? Why?

Answer

India is an agricultural country. Nearly two-thirds of the people are dependent on farming for their livelihood. But of the total cultivated area in the country, a little less than 40 per cent is irrigated even today. In the remaining areas, farming is largely dependent on rainfall which is irregular and uncertain. Modern farming methods cannot be used in the absence of assured adequate water supplies. India cannot achieve the goal of self-sufficiency in food grains unless the area under irrigation is increased.

5. Construct a table on the distribution of land among the 450 families of Palampur.

Answer

Number of familiesLand (hectare)
1500
240Less than 2
60More than 2

6. Why are the wages for farm labourers in Palampur less than minimum wages?

Answer

Farm workers at Palampur village get lower wages than the minimum wages fixed by the government. The minimum wages for a farm labourer is fixed at Rs 115 per day. But farm labourers get only Rs 70 – 80. This happens because of heavy competition for work among the farm labourers at Palampur village.

8. What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? Use examples to explain

Answer

The different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land are:

Multiple Cropping: It is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land. Under it, more than one crop is grown on the same piece of land during the year. Indian farmers should grow at least two main crops in a year. In India, some farmers are growing a third crop also over the past 20 years.

Modern Farming Methods: Production on the same piece of land can also be increased by adopting modern farming methods. The Green Revolution in India is a remarkable example of it. Under modern farming, more cultivable areas should be brought under HYV seeds and irrigation. The use of simple wooden plough must be replaced by tractors. The increasing use of farm machinery like tractors, threshers, harvesters, etc. make cultivation faster.

9. Describe the work of a farmer with 1 hectare of land.

Answer

A farmer with 1 hectare of land shall put under the category of small farmer. Most of the work would be done by the farmer and his family members. The farmer will normally use a pair of bullocks to plough the field. His family members would assist him in sowing the seeds. During harvest time, he may require to hire some labourers.

10. How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is it different from the small farmers?

Answer

Medium and large farmers usually have surplus cash by selling their farm produce. Since they have land and house, they easily get loan from banks. Small farmers, on the other hand, may not be able to get bank loans. They have to depend on the local merchant and moneylender for loan.

11. On what terms did Savita get a loan from Tejpal Singh? Would Savita’s condition be different if she could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest?

Answer

Savita required money for buying seeds, fertilisers and pesticides, and water for irrigation. She also needed money for repairing her farm instruments. So, she decided to borrow money from Tejpal Singh, a large farmer in her village. Tejpal Singh agreed to give the loan of Rs. 3000 at an interest rate of 24 per cent for four months. He also got her to agree to work on his field during the harvest season for Rs. 35 a day.
Savita’s condition would have been better if she could get a loan from the bank. The bank would have provided her the loan at a low rate of interest. Moreover, Savita could have devoted more time on her own field instead of working for Tejpal Singh as farm labourer.

14. What can be done so that more non-farm production activities can be started in villages?

Answer

Three things that need to be done to encourage non-farm production activities in villages:

  • The government should set up schemes whereby landless labourers and small farmers are able to get cheap loans to start small individual/community businesses.
  • In addition to financial assistance, the government should set up rural workshops to enable the villagers to build on their skill levels.
  • The government should also work towards improving the infrastructure of villages so that the rural parts of the country are well connected to the urban areas.

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