Resources and Development Important Extra Questions Class 10 Geography

Past years’ CBSE Exam Questions of the chapter ‘Resources and development’ Class 10 geography. These are important questions and must be practiced by students for Board Exams.

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Topic Wise Past Years’ Exam Questions

One-mark Objective Questions

Q. Read the following features of a soil and name the related soil: [CBSE OD, 2020]

(a) Develops in high rainfall area
(b) Intense leaching process takes place.
(c) Humus content is low.

Ans. Laterite Soil

Q. Read the features of a soil given below and name the related soil. [CBSE OD, 2020]

(i) It consists of properties of sand, silt and clay.
(ii) It is described on the basis of age.
(iii) It is very fertile.

Ans. Alluvial soil.

Q. Read the features of a soil given below and name the related soil. [CBSE OD, 2020]

(i) This soil ranges from red to brown in colour.
(ii) Generally sandy in Texture and saline.
(iii) Soil lacks humus and moisture.

Ans. Arid soil.

Q. Fill in the blanks. [CBSE 2020]

Types of ResourcesExamples
A?Biotic and Abiotic
B?Renewable and non-renewable

Ans. (A) On the basis of origin (B) On the basis of exhaustibility

Other possible answer: (A) – Fishery, Water (B) – Water, Fossil fuels

Resources: Types of Resources, Resource Planning, Sustainability

Short/Long Type Questions

Q. Describe the importance of judicious use of resources. (2020)

Ans. The importance of judicious use of resources are:

(i) It maintains the sustainability of the resources.

(ii) It does not harm the environment.

(iii) It will be conserved for the future generations.

Long Answer:

The importance of judicious use of resources are given below:

(i) Resource planning: The planning is an important step in country like India where resources are enormously diverse for judicious use of resources. It provides economically viable and sustainable solution to the issues related to resources and serves efficiently and effectively.

(ii) Management resources: The proper management is vital for the efficient and sustainable use of resources. The proper management of resources successfully links the human and resources resulting in its judicious use.

(iii) Awareness: The awareness plays an important role in planning, management and use of resources. It is the responsibility of an individual to affectionately plan and manage their local resources and should manage and harness them in the sustainable and best possible way like a vacant piece of community land that can be brought under use by building parks, garden, etc.

Q. Describe the different steps of ‘resource planning’. (2020, 2012)

Short Answer

The different steps of resource planning are:

(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country.

(ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up.

(iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

Long Answer:

Resource planning is consisting of complex processes which are given below:

(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying mapping, qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.

(ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.

(iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans

Q. Classify resources based on origin. (2018, 2015, 2014)

Ans. Resources can be categorized on the basis of origin:

Abiotic resources comprise non-living things (e.g., land, water, air and minerals).

Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere. These have life such as humans, flora and fauna.

Q. How is the issue of sustainability important for development? Explain with examples. [CBSE, 2018]

Answer by a Topper

Q. What are the three stages of resource planning in India? Why is it essential to have resource planning? (2017, 2014)

Ans. Resource planning is a technique or skill for proper utilization of resources.

(a) As resources are limited, their planning is necessary so that we can use them properly and also save them for our future generation.

(b) Resources are not only limited but they are distributed over different parts of the country.

(c) Resource planning is also essential for production of resources and to protect them from over exploitation.

Q. Give one difference between renewable and non-renewable resources. (2016)

Ans. Renewable: Replenished by nature e.g., crops and plants.

Non-renewable: Resources which get exhausted after years of use, e.g., crude oil.

Q. Give an example of non-renewable resources. (2016)

Ans. Coal/Minerals

Q. What is Agenda 21? List its two principles. (2016)

Ans. Agenda 21 was adopted at first international earth Summit held in 1992 at Rio de Janeiro Brazil

The two principles are as follows:

(a) To combat environment damage, poverty disease through global cooperation on (common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities)

(b) Every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.

Q. What are resources which are found in a region but have not been utilised called? (2015)

Ans. Potential resources

Q. Provide a suitable classification for resources on the basis of ownership. Mention main features of any three types of such resources. (2014)


Classification based on ownership:

(i) Individual: Resources owned by individuals are called Individual Resources. For example – land owned by farmers, house, etc.

(ii) Community: Resources owned by community or society are called Community Owned Resources. For example – Graveyard, grazing land, ponds, burial grounds, park, etc.

(iii) National Resources: Resources owned by individual nations are called National Resources. The nation has legal powers, to acquire even private property for public good. All the minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife land in the political boundaries and in oceanic area up to 12 nautical miles from the coast (called territorial waters) and the resources in them belongs to the country. For example – Government land, Roads, canals, railway, etc.

(iv) International Resources: Resources regulated by international bodies are called International Resources. For example – Ocean and sea beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone is called open sea or ocean. No individual country can utilize these resources without the permission of international bodies.

Q. Classify the resources on the basis of exhaustibility. State two characteristics of each. (2016)
OR. Q. Distinguish between the renewable and non-renewable resources. (2012)


Renewable Resources: Resources that can be replenished after a short period of time are called Renewable Resources. For example – agricultural crops, wind energy, water, forest, wildlife, etc.

Non-renewable Resources: Resources which takes million years of time to replenish are called non-renewable resources. For example – fossil fuels.
We must remember that some resources like metals are recyclable.

1. They can be renewed or reproduced.1. They occur over a very long geological period of
2. They can be used over the years again and
2. They get exhausted once used and cannot be used
3. They are abundantly available3. They are available in limited quantity.
E.g., Solar and wind, energy, water, forests and
wildlife, etc.
E.g., Fossil fuels, and other minerals

Q. Distinguish between stock and potential resource. Give one example of each. (2012, 2011)


Stock Resource:

(a) They are found in the environment around us.

(b) They are not accessed due to the lack of technology.

(c) Example: Water is a compound of two inflammable gases – hydrogen and oxygen, hydrogen can be used as a rich source of energy. But we do not have the required technical know-how to use them for this purpose.

Potential Resources:

(a) They are found in a region.

(b) They have not been utilized or developed.

(c) Example: Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy but they are yet to be developed fully for various reasons.

Q. ‘Indiscriminate use of resources had led to numerous problems’. Justify this statement. (2012)

Ans. Resources are vital for human survival and it was believed that resources are free gift of nature. The indiscriminate use of resources led to the following problems.

(i) To satisfy the greed of few individuals, depletion of resources has continued.

(ii) Due to the accumulation of resources in few hands, the society gets divided into two segments, i.e., rich and poor.

(iii) Indiscriminate use of resources has led to ecological crises, e.g., ozone layers depletion, land degradation, global warming and environmental pollution.

Land Resources: Utilization, Land Degradation and Conservation

Short/Long Type Questions

Q. Highlights the reason for land being known as an utmost important natural resource. (AI 2019)

Ans. Land is a resource of utmost importance due to following reasons:

It’s a fixed factor of production and supports all economic activities.

It also supports natural vegetation wildlife and various other resources.

Q. How is over irrigation responsible for land degradation in Punjab? (2019)

Ans. Over irrigation in Punjab causes the lowering in fertility rate of the soil because of water logging leading to increased salinity and alkalinity of the soil.

Q. How is cement industry responsible for land degradation? (2019)

Ans. Grinding and crushing of limestone for the cement industry generate a large amount of dust. As the dust settles down on the soil it reduces the process of infiltration of water into the soil.

Q. In which states has mining caused severe land degradation? (2014)

Ans. Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha.

Q. ‘Land is a natural resource of utmost importance’. Justify the statement with appropriate arguments. (2014)


(i) We live on land; we perform our economic activities on land and we use it in different ways.

(ii) It supports natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activities, transports and communication system.

(iii) It is an asset of a finite magnitude.

Q. Define the following terms: (2013)

(i) Current fallow land
(ii) Other than current fallow
(iii) Culturable waste land


(i) Current fallow land: Left uncultivated for one or less than one agricultural year.

(ii) Other than current fallow: Left uncultivated for past 1 to 5 agricultural years.

(iii) Culturable waste land: Left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years.

Q. Describe any three measures of controlling land degradation. (2012)


(i) Afforestation and proper management of grazing can help in controlling of land degradation.

(ii) Planting of shelter belts, control on overgrazing, stabilisation of sand dune by growing thorny bushes, are important ways.

(iii) Proper management of wastelands, control of mixing activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and sub-urban areas. These are some of the methods to check land degradation.

Q. Which is the main cause of land degradation in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh? How can it be checked? Explain. (2011)


Main Cause: Large scale overgrazing has caused severe land degradation.

Measures to check land degradation include:

  • (a) Afforestation and proper management of grazing.
  • (b) Planting of shelter belts of plants.
  • (c) Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes.
  • (d) Control on overgrazing.

Q. Discuss the factors responsible for land degradation in India. (2015, 2014)

Ans. The important factors responsible for land degradation in India are as follows:

  • (a) Deforestation: By an estimate over one million hectares of forest is lost every year in India.
  • (b) Erosion: Loss of vegetation cover makes land more susceptible to erosion. Wind and water have left vast tracts of land barren. Water erodes top soil to an extent of around 12,000 million tons per annum.
  • (c) Over-Irrigation: Successive cropping and over-irrigation, leads to water-logging and consequent salinization and alkalization. This situation mainly arises due to poor drainage.
  • (d) Floods and Droughts: Drought is both manmade and environment-induced. Man has played a key role in the creation of drought-prone areas by over-exploitation of natural resources like forests, degradation by grazing, excessive withdrawal of ground water, silting of tanks, rivers, etc. Floods, on the other hand, are caused by heavy rains in a very short period. Each situation could have been altered had there been good vegetation cover. Vegetation helps in reducing run-off, increasing infiltration and reducing soil erosion.
  • (e) Over-grazing: India has the world’s largest cattle population, but not enough pasture land. This has led to serious problems as animals have encroached into forest lands and even agricultural lands. Land degradation due to overgrazing leads to desert like conditions.
  • (f) Pollution: Pollution of land is caused by disposal of solid waste, refuse from domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors. Another major source of land pollution is the creation of derelict land due to mining particularly due to surface and underground mining activities.

Q. Why is soil considered as a resource? Explain with five arguments. (2015)


(i) Soil is considered as a resource because it is used to satisfy our needs.

(ii) It is the most important renewable natural resource.

(iii) It is the medium of plant growth. (iv) It supports different types of living organisms on the earth.

Q. How can you contribute to minimize the pollution? Explain. (2014)

We can contribute to minimize pollution by:

(i) Planting more plants and trees.

(ii) Using non-conventional sources of energy such as solar and wind energy.

(iii) Using public transport instead of personal car motor bike etc. (iv) Saving water and electricity.

Soil: Classification, Erosion and Conservation

Short/Long Type Questions

Q. Describe any three main features of the black soil. [CBSE 2019, 32/2/3]


  • Black soils are made up of extremely fine; clayey material.
  • They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture.
  • They are rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.
  • They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil.

Long Answer

Major characteristics of Black soil are:

(i) Black soil is fine textured and clayey in nature. It is suitable for growing cotton.

(ii) Black soil has high amount of lime, iron, magnesium and generally low quantities of Phosphorus, Nitrogen and organic matter.

(iii) It is formed from weathered lava rocks, thus is black in colour and also known as Regur Soil.

(iv) It has a high clay content and therefore is highly retentive of water. It is extremely fertile in most of the places where it is found.


Q. Enumerate any three features of “regur” soil. (2012)

Ans. Features of Regur Soil:

(i) Regur soil is also known as black soil.

(ii) It is ideal for growing cotton, so it is also known as “Black cotton soil”.

(iii) It is made up of extremely fine clayey material.

(iv) It is rich in soil nutrients, calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.

(v) It develops cracks in hot weather.

(vi) It can hold moisture and is sticky when wet.


Q. Which geographical factors are responsible for the evolution of black soil? Why is it considered the most suitable for growing cotton? (2012)


Factors are responsible for the evolution of black soil: Climatic conditions along with present rock material are important factors for making of black soil. The parent rock is volcanic rocks.

It is ideal for growing cotton because of the following reasons:

  • (a) It has capacity to hold moisture.
  • (b) It is rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate and potash.
  • (c) Deep cracks in the soil help in aeration.

Q. Highlight the importance of contour ploughing. (AI 2019)

Ans. Contour farming, the practice of tilling sloped land along lines of consistent elevation in order to conserve rainwater and to reduce soil losses from surface erosion.

Q. Name the soil type which is widely found in Western Rajasthan. Explain two important characteristics of this soil type which makes it unsuitable for cultivation. (2017)

Ans. The soil type in western Rajasthan is arid soil, following are its characteristics:

(i) it consists very high kankar nodules due to increasing calcium content downwards.

(ii) it is brown – yellow in its colour.

(iii) it is difficult to cultivate anything on this type of soil, but cultivation can be encouraged after proper irrigation as in western Rajasthan.

Q. “In India, some regions are rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resource”. Do you agree with the statement? Support your answer with any three examples. (2016)

Ans. Yes, there are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources.

(i) Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.

(ii) Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development.

(iii) Rajasthan is endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources.

(iv) Ladakh has rich cultural heritage but lacks in water resources and infrastructure.

Q. Explain the two types of soil erosion mostly observed in India. Explain three human activities responsible for soil erosion. (2016)


Types of soil erosion:

(a) Gullies: The running water cuts through the clayey soil and makes deep channels/gullies. The unfit land caused by gullies is called bad land or ravines.

(b) Sheet erosion: Water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. The top soil is washed away. This process is known as sheet erosion.

Human activities responsible for soil erosion:

Three human activities which are responsible for the process of soil erosion are deforestation and overgrazing, mining, construction and mining etc.

Q. Which soil type is the most widely spread and important soil in India? (2015)

Alluvial soil

Q. Distinguish between red soil and laterite soil stating any three points of distinction. (2015)


Red soils:

(i) Red soil is formed due to weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks.

(ii) It is highly porous and less fertile but where it is deep it is fertile.

(iii) It is less crystalline.

(iv) It is red in colour due to presence of iron in it. They occur in parts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Jharkhand.

Laterite soil:

(i) It is formed by the leaching process in the heavy rainfall areas of tropical India.

(ii) It is less fertile, only grass grows on it in abundance.

(iii) It is crystalline.

(iv) It is found in hills of the Deccan, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Assam and Meghalaya.

Q. Describe any five distinct characteristics of ‘Arid soils’. (2015)

Ans. Distinct characteristics of ‘Arid soils’

(i) Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.

(ii) Sandy in texture and saline in nature.

(iii) Evaporation from this soil is faster, soil lacks humus and moisture.

(iv) Soil occupied by Kankar.

(v) Kankar restricts the infiltration of water.

Q. Mention any three features of arid soils. (2014)

Ans. Features of Arid soil are:

(i) Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.

(ii) They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.

(iii) Due to dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture.

(iv) The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing calcium content.

Q. What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give four main features of this type of soil. (2014)

Ans. Alluvial soil is found in the entire northern plain it is the most widely spread soil of India. Main features of alluvial soil:

(i) It is formed by the deposition of materials brought down by the Himalayan rivers.

(ii) It is highly fertile.

(iii) It consists of various proportion of sand, silt and clay.

(iv) It is rich in potash, phosphoric acid and lime but deficient in organic matter.

Q. Explain any three factors responsible for soil formation. (2012, 2011)


(i) The parent rock is the first factor which provides the basic material for the formation of soil.

(ii) Climate breaks the parent rock into small pieces.

(iii) Vegetation: Plant and animal organisms help in the weathering of the rocks slowly but

(iv) Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers, etc, contribute to the formation of soil.

(v) Chemical and organic changes take place in the soil.

Long Answer

Factors responsible for soil formation are:

(i) Parent Rock: The parent rock is the first factor which provides the basic material for the formation of soil.

(ii) Climate: Climatic factors like rainfall and changes in temperature help in breaking the parent rock into small pieces.

(iii) Vegetation: Plants help in the weathering of rocks though slowly but continuously.

(iv) Natural Agents: Various forces of nature such as actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers, etc., contribute to the formation of soil.

Q. Suggest any three methods of soil conservation suitable to Indian conditions. (2012)

Ans. Methods of soil conservation are listed below:

(i) Ploughing along the contour lines can decrease the speed of water flow down the slopes.

(ii) Step or terrace cultivation on slopes restricts erosion. Western and central Himalayas have well-developed terrace farming areas.

(iii) Strip cropping: Here large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind.

(iv) Shelter belt plantation: Trees are planted in rows. These shelter belts have led to the stabilisation of sand dunes and in stabilising the desert in western India.

Q. Distinguish between Khadar and Bangar soils. (2011)

S. No.Khadar soilBangar soil
1.It is a new alluvial soil.It is an old alluvial
2.Lower concentration of kankar nodules.Higher concentration of kankar nodules.
3.It has more fine
It has less fine particles.
4.It is more fertile.It is less fertile.

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