Nationalism in India is an important chapter Class 10 History syllabus. Two important events in the freedom struggle – The Non-cooperation Movement and The Civil Disobedience Movement- of India have been covered in the chapter Nationalism in India. Other topics include Khilafat issue, Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, Simon Commission etc. Class 10 history Nationalism in India chapter also discusses the different participants in the two major movements.
Below are given Important Questions of the Chapter nationalism in India Class 10 History. Practice them well with the help of videos at Sirji Ncert Tutorials YouTube Channel.
Nationalism in India Video
Nationalism in India Class 10 Important Questions
CBSE Class 10 History Questions Year 2020
1. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow: (one mark each) (2020)
Source: The Movement in the Towns The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. The council elections were boy-and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
1.1. Explain the role of ‘Justice Party’ in boycotting of council elections.
1.2. How was the effects of ‘non-cooperation on the economic front’ dramatic?
1.3. Explain the effect of ‘Boycott’ movement on ‘foreign textile trade’.
1.1. The Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power—something that usually only Brahmans had access to.
1.2. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
1.3. i. The import of foreign cloth halved.
ii. Merchants & traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
iii. Indian textile mills & handloom went up
2. Why did Indians oppose the ‘Simon Commission’? (1 mark) (2020)
The Commission did not have any Indian member.
The First World War and its impact on economic and political situation
1. How had the ‘First World War’ created economic problems in India? Explain with examples. (2016, 19)
2. What was the impact of the first World War on India.? (2011, 2015)
3. How did the WW1 create a new economic situation? Explain with three examples. (2003)
- The war and its aftermath created favourable situation for mass struggle and played an important role in shaping India’s freedom struggle.
- Increase in defence expenditure due to the war led to the increase in taxes, custom duties
- Introduction of income tax
- Prices increased doubling between 1913 and 1918
- Extreme hardships, poverty and forced recruitments in the army raised anti-British feelings
- During 1918–19 and 1920–21, food shortages due to the failure of crops and famines and Influenza epidemics
- Around 12 to 1 million people died as a result of epidemics and famines
After the war the British Government Proved a failure to address the above issues and people were ready to be led by a leader like Gandhiji who returned to India in 1915.
Explain any four points about Gandhiji’s Satyagraha. (2008, 11)
Meaning – Emphasis on power of truth via non-violent methods
- It is a pure soul-force
- No need to use physical force if struggle is for a right cause and against injustice
- It does not advocate inflicting pain in the adversary
- No ill-will, vengeance to and destruction of the adversary
- Truth is a matter of persuasion and should not be forced upon adversary or any other
- Truth is bound to ultimately triumph
- According to Gandhiji, dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians
1. How did Gandhi apply the idea of Satyagraha in our country? (2013)
Name the two main ‘Satyagraha Movements ‘organised by Mahatma Gandhiji successfully in favour of peasants in 1916 and 1917. (2008, 11)
After coming to India, Gandhiji (2 Oct, 1989 – 30 Jan, 1948) successfully three major movements before launching three big movements.
- Champaran Satyagraha 1916 – Gandhiji visited Champaran to lead the movement by peasants against the oppressive indigo plantations. In 1918 Champaran Agricultural Act tried to solve the problem
- Kheda Satyagraha – The crop failure and Bubonic plague caused hardships to peasants. They were demanding a revenue remission. Gandhi ji lead the movement there
- Ahmedabad Mill Workers – Gandhiji led the textile worker movement against mill owners. There was a demand for 50% pay hike. Ultimately the mill owners decided to raise pay by 30 %.
Rowlatt Act Satyagraha
1. Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to launch a nationwide ‘Satyagraha’ against the proposed ‘Rowlatt Act? Explain with three reasons. (2010, 14, 15)
2. What was Rowlatt Act? How was it opposed by the people in India? Explain with examples. (2010, 11, 13)
- Rowlatt Act was Prepared by a committee under Sir Sidley Rowlatt
- Despite opposition by Indian members it was hurriedly passed through Imperial Legislative Council
- It gave govt. enormous coercive power to contain increasing revolutionary activities
- Arrests and detention of political prisoners without trial for two years
- Restrictions on press and movement of persons suspected of anti-government activities
Reaction of the people or how the Rowlatt Act was opposed by people.
- The undemocratic and authoritarian Law was denounced by people from all walks of life.
- Gandhiji called for ‘Rowlatt Satyagraha’ a non-violent civil Disobedience to the law.
- It was a first nationwide movement under Gandhiji
- On 6 April a mighty Hartal was proposed against proposed Rowlatt Act
- Rallies were organised in various cities
- Workers went on strike in railway workshops
- Shops closed down
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
1. Describe the incident and impact of Jallianwala Bagh massacre. (2014, 15)
The people were protesting against the repressive measures adopted by govt. In the meanwhile, the Jallianwala Bagh incident took place.
- It was an enclosed area with only one point of entry and exit
- A large crowd had gathered there for Baisakhi celebrations
- Some had come to show their protests against govt’s repressive measures
- Many villagers were not aware of propitiatory orders under martial law
- Gen Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit and ordered for firing without any warning
- It was an intentional massacre killing hundreds and wounding thousands
- Gen Dyer shamelessly declared his object as to ‘produce a moral force’ in the form of awe and terror in the minds of Satyagrahis.
Impact of the Jallianwala Bagh Incident
- Crowds took to streets
- Incidents of strikes, clashes and attacks on govt. buildings
- The govt resorted to brutal repression inflicting pain and atrocities on people
- Satyagrahis were humiliated – they were forced to rub nose on ground, crawl on the streets, do salaam to all Sahibs
- Flogging of villagers
- Bombing of villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab)
- Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood title
- Seeing the violence spread Gandhiji called off the movement
1. Why did Mahatma Gandhi support Khilafat movement? (2011, 2012, 14)
2. Who launched the Khilafat movement? Why was the movement launched? (2011, 12)
Causes of Khilafat Movement
- Ottoman Turkey was defeated in the first World War
- It was a rumour that a harsh treaty was going to dismember Turkey
- The Islamic spiritual head ‘Khalifa’ the Sultan of Ottoman Empire was to be removed
- All this agitated Muslims in India also
- They defended the temporal powers of Khalifa and wanted to keep
Formation of Khilafat Committee
- It was formed in Bombay in March 1919
- Ali Brothers (Shaukat Ali, Muhammad Ali), Maulana Azad, Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohini were its founding members
Gandhiji’s Support to Khilafat issue
- Gandhiji felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India with Hindus and Muslims together
- Khilafat appeared to be a golden opportunity to cement Hindu-Muslim unity and to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national Movement
- Gandhiji also became a president of Khilafat Committee.
- Ali Brothers talked to Gandhiji on the possibility of any unified mass action
- At Calcutta Congress session (1920), Gandhiji convinced other leaders on the issue of Non-cooperation Movement in favour of Khilafat and Swaraj.
1, What were the reasons or why did Gandhiji launch Non-cooperation movement? (2008, 12)
Causes or reasons
- Rowlatt Act
- Jallianwala Bagh Incident
- Khilafat Issue
2. “British rule in India would have collapsed if Indians had not cooperated”. How did this statement help in starting mass movement in India against the British rule? (2005)
Gandhiji’s had said – ‘ If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would come ‘ (Book- Hind Swaraj)
- Gandhiji supported the Khilafat issue to bring Muslims and Hindus together under one umbrella.
- Through the Summer of 1920 Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively to garner support for a unified mass movement
- At Congress Nagpur session (Dec, 1920) a Non-cooperation programme was adopted.
- The Non-cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in January ,1920.
3. Discuss the various stages of Non-Cooperation of Non-cooperation Movement. (2016)
4. Mention three main proposals, with reference to the Non-cooperation-movement. (2008)
Stages of Non-Cooperation movement
First stage- Surrender of titles and awards
Second stage- Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative Councils, school, and foreign goods were burnt in huge bonfires.
Third Stage– If govt resorted to repressive measures the Movement was to turn into full civil disobedience campaign.
5. Describe briefly any three economic effects of the Non-cooperation Movement. (2008, 09, 11, 12)
Economic Impact of the non-Cooperation Movement
- Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed.
- The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922. Value of import dropped from ₹102 crores to ₹57 crores.
- Merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade Production of India textile mills and handlooms went up.
6. Give three reasons behind slowing down of Non-cooperation Movement (2011, 12, 15)
Reasons behind slowing down of the Non-Cooperation Movement.
- It was difficult for the poor people to afford Khadi because it was more expensive than Mill produced cloth.
- In the absence of sufficient alternative Indian Institutions, students and teachers began to resume at their old working places
- The same applied to the lawyers who resumed their work in the govt courts.
7. Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-cooperation Movement in February,1922? Explain any three reasons. (2016)
Reasons behind calling off the Non-cooperation Movement
- The movement had turned violent.
- The immediate cause was the Chauri Chaura incident in Gorakhpur. On February 5, 1922 police fired at the people who are agitating in favour of Non-cooperation Movement. The people rebelled against the police and burnt the police station. As a result, 22 policemen were died
- Gandhiji withdrew the Non-Cooperation Movement on 12 February, 1922.
8. How did the Non-cooperation movement spread in cities across the country? Explain its effects on the economic front. (2015)
- In cities middle-class participation led the movement
- Students left govt schools
- Teachers resigned
- Lawyers left their legal practices
- The council elections were boycotted except by Justice Party in Madras. (The party comprised Non-Brahmans)
- But the movement slowed down with time.
- Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed.
- The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922. Value of import dropped from ₹102 crores to ₹57
- Merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade Production of India textile mills and handlooms went up
9. Describe any three major problems faced by the peasants of Awadh in the days of Non-cooperation movement. (2015 ,16)
A sanyasi Baba Ramchandra led the movement. He was a Fiji returned. He had gone there as indentured labour but returned to India.
Problems of Peasants
- Talukdars and land lords demand high rent
- Begar had to be done (👉 Begar- work without payment)
- No security of tenancy tenure
- They had no rights over leased-land and were regularly evicted
Demands of the peasants
- Reduction in revenue
- Abolition of begar
- Boycott of oppressive land lords (Nai-Dhobi band organised by panchayats to support peasants
10. How did the peasants of Awadh use different methods to achieve their goal? Explain with examples. (2014)
Oudh Kisan Sabhas
- Such Oudh Kisan Sabhas were organised by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1920. The aim was to integrate farmers with Non-cooperation Movement.
- Over 300 came to be set up within a month.
- But, the peasants indulged in violent and disruptive activities- looting bazaar, attacking merchants, taking over hoarded grains. They used the name of Mahatma Gandhi to justify Their stands.
11. Who was Alluri Sitaram Raju? Explain the role played by tribal peasants in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh during the non-cooperation movement. (2012)
12. Analyse any four features of Gudem rebellion of Andhra Pradesh. (2011)
Tribal peasants’ revolt
- In early 1920, a tribal revolt spread in the Gudem Hills in Andhra Pradesh.
- The revolt was against the forest policy of the British Their traditional rights and livelihood were affected.
- Alluri Siataram Raju was their leader. He was inspired by Gandhiji but thought Violence necessary to liberate India.
- His followers followed him and attacked Police stations, British officials through gorillas -warfare.
|Alluri Sitaram Raju- Tribal considered him an incarnation of GodHe claimed to have special powers to heal, make astrological predictions,and even face bullets. He was inspired by GandhijiHe urged his followers to wear Khadi and give up drinkingBut he differed from Gandhiji and approved over violent methods to liberate IndiaHe was captured and executed in 1924 but after death he became talk of every home and became a folklore|
13. “The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj”. Support the statement with arguments. (2016)
14. Explain the response of the plantation workers to the Non-Cooperation Movement? What did freedom mean to them? (2016)
15. What was the notion of swaraj for the plantation workers in Assam? (2008)
Plantation workers of Assam
Under the Inland Emigration Act 1859, the workers were not allowed to leave tea garden without permission. Rarely such permissions were ever given.
Idea of Swaraj for plantation workers meant- right to freedom of movement out of their confined premises. It also meant that they could go home. They believed Gandhi Raj would give them land in their villages.
- Following their notion of swaraj they defied the authorities, came out of gardens and left for home
- But they could not reach home
- They got stranded because of strikes of Railways and steamers
- All were caught and brutally beaten up.