Questions: Short Answer Type
1. Trace out the initial developments in Germany after its defeat in the First World War in 1918.
Describe what happened to Germany after its defeat in the First World War.
2. Who were called the November criminals? Why were they called so?
3. How was the Weimar Republic born in Germany? Explain. [CBSE 2012]
4. Describe any three effects of the Great Depression (1929-1932) on Germany. [CBSE 2016]
What was the impact of the ‘Great Economic Crisis’ on the economy of Germany? Explain. [CBSE 2016]
5. Describe the impact of defeat of the Imperial Germany on its polity. [CBSE 2012]
6. Mention any three factors which contributed to the economic crisis faced by the Weimar Republic in 1923. [CBSE 2012]
7. How did the economic crisis start in USA?
8. Describe any three conditions of the Treaty of Versailles. [CBSE 2016]
1. Impact of 1st World war on Germany
(i) World War I ended with the Allies defeating Germany and the Central powers in November 1918.
(ii) The Peace Treaty at Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating treaty. Germany lost its overseas colonies, a tenth of its population, 13 per cent of its territories, 75 per cent of its iron and 26 per cent of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania.
(iii) The Allied Powers demilitarized Germany to weaken its power. Germany was forced to pay compensation amounting to 6 billion pounds.
2. They were the politicians and people who supported the Weimar Republic. Mainly they were Socialists, Catholics and Democrats. They became easy targets of attack in the conservative nationalist circles because they were responsible for injustices done to Germany by signing Versailles treaty. They were mockingly called the ‘November criminals.
3. The defeat of Imperial Germany and the abdication of the emperor gave an opportunity to parliamentary parties to recast German polity. A National Assembly met at Weimar and established a democratic constitution with a federal structure. Deputies were now elected to the German Parliament or Reichstag, on the basis of equal and universal votes cast by all adults including women.
4. Great Economic Depression:
(i) Industrial output fell by 40%; workers lost their jobs and they were paid low wages.
(ii) Sharp fall in agricultural prices.
(iii) Women were severely affected.
5. Impact of defeat of the Imperial Germany on its polity are:
(i) The defeat of Imperial Germany and the abdication of the emperor gave an opportunity to recast German polity.
(ii) A National Assembly established a democratic constitution with a federal structure.
(iii) Deputies were elected to the German Parliament on the basis of equal and universal votes.
(iv) This republic was not received well by its own people because of the terms it was forced to accept after defeat.
6.The three factors which contributed to the economic crisis faced by the Weimar Republic in 1923. :
(i) The terms of Treaty of Versailles whereby, Germany lost its overseas colonies and territories.
(ii) Germany was forced to pay compensation under War Guilt Clause.
(iii) Depleted gold reserves due to repayment of loans. (iv) Devaluation of German mark and hyperinflation.
7. The economic crisis started in USA with the crash of the Wall Street Exchange in 1929, when USA could not recover back loans. Fearing a fall in price, people made efforts to sell their shares. On a single day, 13 million shares were sold. Business closed, banks became bankrupt, exports fell, farmers were badly hit. All these factors led to unemployment.
8. The Treaty of Versailles was harsh and humiliating peace for the Germans.
(i) Germany lost all its overseas colonies, a tenth of its population.
(ii) 13 per cent of its territories, 75 per cent of its iron and 26 per cent of its coal to France.
(iii) Germany was demilitarized to weaken its power.
(iv) The war guilt clause held Germany responsible for war and damages the Allied countries suffered. It was forced to pay a compensation amounting to £6 billion.